Military Images

Finding Aid: Autumn 2021

A complete table of contents for the Summer 2021 issue of Military Images magazine, and information about how to purchase single issues and subscriptions.

Vol. XXXIX, No. 4
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures a U.S. Colored Infantryman.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “A Word About Mail Delivery,” the editor shares details about the history of the U.S. Post Office’s periodicals rate.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for the gallery of buglers, a memorial to Trevor Boeve, a journey to recognize the grave of a Civil War veteran, and notes on fluted Colt Revolvers and Maynard Carbines.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A breakdown of Medals of Honor awarded to Union army soldiers, by rank.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Two books are reviewed: Colonel Mobley: The 7th Maryland Infantry in the Civil War by Justin T. Mayhew (self-published) and Military Prisons of the Civil War: A Comparative Study by David L. Keller (Westholme Publishing).

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “Civil War Photo Sleuth Goes Social,” Luther provides information about several new features that focus on collaboration and community.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A sixth plate daguerreotype features a soldier dressed in a uniform with hints of militia and regular army from the Mexican War to early 1850s era.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
Pvt. Oliver Gardner of the 3rd Michigan Infantry survived a wound at the Battle of Gettysburg but succumbed to injuries sustained during the Battle of The Wilderness. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Honored Few (p. 16)
Maj. John Curtis Gilmore of the 16th New York Infantry put himself in harm’s way during the Battle of Salem Church when he grabbed the colors and rallied the men. His actions resulted in the Medal of Honor.

The Citizenry by Ross J. Kelbaugh (p. 18)
In “Free at Last,” the origins of a carte de visite of Freedmen on the grounds of a home is traced to Louisiana and the Baton Rouge studio of photographers McPherson and Oliver.

Bandsmen (pp. 21-35)
A gallery of 42 images collected in collaboration with Editor Dale Niesen of the Facebook group “The Image Collector” and contributions by collectors, reviewed by Jeff Stockham, is focused on musicians pictured with cornets and saxhorns.

Miniature Flags and Secession Cockades: Images from the Matthew L. Oswalt M.D. Collection (pp. 36-46)
30 representative images showcase Southern soldiers and civilians. The photographs are introduced with a biographical information of Oswalt and how he became a collector of Civil War images.

Sylvester’s War: The journey of an Indiana volunteer from Tippecanoe County to Tennessee by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 48-51)
Wagonmaker Sylvester Leaming left his family and joined the 40th Indiana Infantry. His travels as a soldier took him to numerous battlefields, including Missionary Ridge, where a wound proved mortal. This is his story.

A Father and His Sons Fighting Together: The Drown family of the 5th Rhode Island Heavy Artillery by Norman C. Delaney (pp. 52-54)
Joshua Champlin Drown, Sr., and his sons, Joshua, Jr., and Benjamin, served and survived their Civil War military experience. This is their story.

Army Life: An essay in ambrotypes and tintypes by David B. Holcomb (pp. 55-59)
The author captures the essence of the Union soldiers’ Civil War experience in eight photographs.

Green-Wood Cemetery by Jeffrey I. Richman, with images courtesy of The Green-Wood Historic Fund Collections (pp. 61-66)
A final resting place for more than 5,000 Union and Confederate veterans in Brooklyn, N.Y., the cemetery is also distinguished as one of the earliest burial grounds in the rural cemetery movement of the early 19th century. A selection of images of Civil War soldiers interred in the historic cemetery is included here.

Groundbreaking Calendar, a Q&A with Confederate Calendar creator Lawrence T. Jones III (pp. 67-70)
In 1976, Texas photography Larry Jones of Austin, Texas, produced his first calendar with Confederate photographs. Little could he have realized that he’d continue making them for years. In this exclusive interview, Larry discusses the calendars and his lifetime of collecting.

Material Culture by Ron Field (pp. 75)
In “Navy Round Jackets,” Field provides detail about the blue cloth jackets that originate with the first U.S. Navy frigate crews in 1797.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry, and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 74-75)
In “The Tiger Tree Backdrop of Kalamazoo, Michigan,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas with a striped tree and military scene. This presence of this background is a clue that the soldier pictured likely served in a small number of regiments formed in the region during the Civil War.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 76-78)
Included are portraits of members of Company E, 44th New York Infantry, two members of U.S. Colored Infantry regiments, Henri B. Loomis of the 56th New York Infantry, Stephen Hannas of the 11th Virginia Infantry and a group of soldiers from the 21st Wisconsin Infantry atop Lookout Mountain, Tenn.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth plate post-mortem ambrotype pictures a Union officer in death, his body carefully cleaned and dressed.

Finding Aid: Spring 2021

Vol. XXXIX, No. 2
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Paul Russinoff Collection pictures Maj. Benjamin Franklin Watson of the 6th Massachusetts Infantry and a personal attendant.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Musings on Preservation,” the editor discusses the word in the third of the publication’s motto: Showcase. Interpret. Preserve.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for the New Hampshire gallery in the last issue, the identification of a backdrop, the discovery of a local connection to a New Hampshire soldier a note about image credits in a vibrant collector’s marketplace.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A survey of 567 ambrotypes and 684 tintypes sheds light on plate sizes and the portion of each. Sixth-plate images dominate.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Two books are reviewed: Yank and Rebel Rangers: Special Operations in the American Civil War (Pen & Sword Military) by Robert W. Black and Captured Images: Akron Photographers in the Civil War (self-published) by John P. Gurnish.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-11)
In “Investigating the Iconic Portraits of a USCT Drummer Boy,” Luther documents known variations of a pair of well-known cartes de visite of a youth pictured in tattered clothing in one portrait and a Union drummer in the other. The author examines the competing identifications of the subject as Taylor or Jackson and his regimental affiliation to the 78th or 79th U.S. Colored infantries.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Mike Medhurst Collection features a boy holding a guidon and seated on a drum. His uniform and initials on the guidon connect him to the New York militia.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Captain Dewitt Clinton Lewis of the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry received the Medal of Honor for rescuing a soldier in his command who became mired in a swamp during the Battle of Secessionville, S.C., on June 16, 1862.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 16)
First Sergeant B. Fayette Green and his pards in the 126th New York Infantry began their service by being surrendered en masse at Harpers Ferry. They went on to distinguish themselves in battle at Gettysburg and the Overland Campaign, where Green suffered a wound at Cold Harbor that ended his combat career. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry (p. 18)
In “A Capitol Policeman Inside the Dome,” we meet John Patterson Gulick, a native Pennsylvanian who lived in Illinois, Iowa, Michigan and Virginia before the war. He spent at least five years (1864-1869) as a police officer at the Capitol Building.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (p. 20)
In “Confederate Remounts,” a companion to his previous column about Union remounts, Frohne shares tips to spot cartes de visite prints that have been carefully removed from mounts and replaced on new mounts to make them more salable.

A Savior of the Capitol by Paul Russinoff (pp. 22-31)
Benjamin Franklin Watson, a New Hampshire native who settled in Lowell, Mass., before the war, served in the 6th Massachusetts Infantry when the regiment received orders to report to Washington, D.C., during the days following the rebel attack on Fort Sumter. The author details Watson’s rise from a respected leader in Lowell to his leadership of the regiment as it journeyed through hostile mobs in Baltimore to sleeping in the U.S. Capitol and beyond. The story is illustrated with portraits of Watson and others.

Drummers (pp. 33-41)
A gallery of images collected in collaboration with Editor Dale Niesen of the Facebook group “The Image Collector” and contributions by collectors, reviewed by Contributing Editor Chris Nelson, is focused on soldiers pictured with their drums. All are Union musicians.

Tracking Booth by Richard A. Wolfe (pp. 43-46)
Everton Judson Conger went down in history for his role in the 1865 manhunt that ended in the capture and death of John Wilkes Booth, assassin of President Abraham Lincoln. There is, however, much more to his story. The author details Everton’s rise from a dentist in Ohio to a respected cavalry commander who caught the attention of Col. Lafayette Curry Baker. Everton’s brother, Seymour, served with him in the 3rd West Virginia Cavalry and suffered a death wound in 1864.

Case Number 16 by Patrick Naughton (pp. 48-51)
Respected Lt. John Sandford Williams of the 3rd Delaware Infantry found himself in a tough situation at the Battle of Hatcher’s Run. A fellow officer suffered a wound and pleaded with Williams to help him to safety. Williams acted with compassion and helped the man—and it resulted in his court martial. The author, a descendant of Williams, tells his ancestor’s story and reveals how commanders can treat honor and pride.

The Cambrian Oratress by Richard L. Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 52-55)
Susannah Evans came to New York City from her native Scotland in August 1863 on a crusade to promote the cause of temperance. Her journey in America benefitted soldiers who struggled with alcohol. She also turned her attention to aiding wounded men, including Sgt. Alfred A. Stratton of the 147th New York Infantry, who had suffered the loss of his arms in battle.

Not a Forty-Eighter by Daniel Carroll Toomey (pp. 56-59)
Social unrest in Germany during the mid-19th century ended in a nasty military crackdown that resulted in a wave of German immigration to the U.S. One of the soldiers who fought to put down the German rebels, Earnest Barth, followed them to America. After the start of the Civil War, he donned Union blue and helped put down the Southern rebellion. This is his story.

From Vivid Eggplant to Unpleasant Cheesy Hues by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 60-64)
Concern about the yellowing and fading of albumen prints is almost as old albumen paper itself. Invented in 1850, it made the mass production of photographs possible—but the deterioration of the prints prompted the esteemed Photographic Society of London to open an investigation in 1855. This is a brief history of the problems and what today’s collectors can do to protect their treasures.

They Knew Gettysburg Before the Battle (pp. 67-70)
Included among the millions of artifacts in the collections of the Adams County Historical Society in Gettysburg, Pa., are a number of photographic portraits of townspeople. A selection of these images is pictured here. Each is identified and accompanied by a profile of the subject.

Connected by a Carte de Visite by Joseph G. Bilby and Gary D. Saretzky (pp. 71-72)
Rev. John G. Frazee of the 3rd New Jersey Cavalry posed for his portrait wearing the subdued uniform of a chaplain in the Camden, N.J., studio of Andrew Sims. A recent immigrant from Scotland, he was at the beginning of a long career as a lensman. The authors provide capsule biographies of the two men.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 73-74)
In “Lytle’s Baton Rouge Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas featuring a plantation-style home used by Andrew David Lytle, an Ohio-born photographer who settled in Louisiana before the war. He is among a small cadre of photographers whose sitters included Union and Confederate soldiers.

Material Culture by Ron Field (pp. 75-77)
In “Early Uniforms of Duryée’s Zouaves, 1861,” Field examines the poor-quality uniforms furnished to the New Yorkers during the war’s first months. Three stereoviews by New York City photographer George Stacy illustrate the text.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
Included are portraits of Confederate soldiers who served in the 2nd Texas Cavalry, 17th Virginia Infantry, Col. John Singleton Mosby’s 43rd Cavalry Battalion, and the 4th Florida Infantry. Also pictured are two Union musicians.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Dale Niesen Collection pictures a Union soldier holding up a pocket-sized book, G. Woolworth Colton’s New Guide Map of the United States & Canada With Railroads, Counties & c.

Research Rabbit Hole: The Backwards Image Problem

A new episode of Research Rabbit Hole, our Facebook Live show, premiered Monday evening, February 22, at 9 p.m. ET.

Season 1, Episode 4, explores the issue of viewing early photographs—daguerreotypes, ambrotypes and tintypes—in reverse. Photographers, inventors and other technologists of the mid-19th century were adaptable and most likely could have fixed it, but they did not. Why? Because lateral reversal is a 21st century problem!

The full season is available on YouTube.

New episodes of Research Rabbit Hole will be released every two weeks on our Facebook page. The host, Ronald S. Coddington, is Editor and Publisher of Military Images.

Research Rabbit Hole: This Uniform Tells a Story

A new episode of Research Rabbit Hole, our Facebook Live show, premiered Monday evening, February 8, at 9 p.m. ET.

Season 1, Episode 3, examines a carte de visite of an unidentified Union soldiers wearing a uniform that offers several clues as to the state from which he served, his pre-war military service, and the photography gallery in which he posed (hint: the Civil War’s most celebrated photographer).

The full season is available on YouTube.

New episodes of Research Rabbit Hole will be released every two weeks on our Facebook page. The host, Ronald S. Coddington, is Editor and Publisher of Military Images.

Research Rabbit Hole: Anti-Confederate Art

A new episode of Research Rabbit Hole, our Facebook Live show, premiered Monday evening, January 25, at 9 p.m. ET.

Season 1, Episode 2, examined a carte de visite titled “The Neglected Picture,” a painting by Port Jefferson, N.Y., artist William Moore Davis.

The full season is available on YouTube.

New episodes of Research Rabbit Hole will be released every two weeks on our Facebook page. The host, Ronald S. Coddington, is Editor and Publisher of Military Images.

New Show: Research Rabbit Hole

Research Rabbit Hole, a new Facebook Live show, premiered Monday evening, January 11, at 9 p.m. ET.

Season 1, Episode 1, looked at the origin of the expression “Not on your tintype” and its relationship to the Civil War period.

The goal of Research Rabbit Hole is to connect Civil War images across time and generations of American and world history. The idea for the show grew out of a segment by the same name on Military Images Live, which aired for three seasons (2018-2020) on Facebook and is archived on YouTube.

New episodes of Research Rabbit Hole will be released every two weeks on our Facebook page. The host, Ronald S. Coddington, is Editor and Publisher of Military Images.

Editors Picks: The 10 most intriguing photographs in Military Images magazine for 2020

Looking back through the four issues published in 2020, I am struck by the variety and quality of the images. They reflect the enthusiasm and energy of you, the collecting community and caretakers of these artifacts. Each one is noteworthy for its content, the identity of the subject, or the story behind it. I find it an impossible task to select a single image as the best we published. There are, however, some that I find especially compelling for one reason or another. Here they are, my top 10 picks of the images I found to be most intriguing, and why. The images are ordered by issue date.

Brothers at Arms
Gary Waddey Collection
Winter 2020

Summary: Tennessee’s Edward and Gabriel Fowlkes grew up together in Hickman County. Then the war came, and they went separate ways—one into the Union army and the other into the Confederate army. Their story is representative of how the war tore families apart. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: An image of two brothers, North and South, pictured together in the uniforms of their respective armies is among the rarest subjects of Civil War portrait photography.

Ock Tyner Leaves His Mark
Paul Russinoff Collection
Winter 2020

Summary: Oscar Newton Tyner, known as “Ock” to his pals, worked as a photographer’s assistant in the gallery of Barr & Young of Vicksburg. One of the images Tyner printed and signed was Jesse Root Grant, father of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Turns out the photo was taken at a low point during the general’s military career. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: The photographers and assistants who labored behind the camera to create the images we hold dear are all too often relegated to the shadows. Here, we are able to glimpse one of them with his soldier brother.

A Daguerreian Pioneer at the Rendezvous of Distribution
Ross J. Kelbaugh Collection
Spring 2020

Summary: In his inaugural column, Adam Ochs Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas depicting a scene that includes Sibley tents and a palm tree. His investigations highlight the man behind the backdrop, John Jones, and the gallery he operated. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: My soft spot for seeing portraits of photographers and my fascination with cartes de visite are all wrapped up in this pair of images of Baltimore’s John Jones and his assistant, Henry H. Clark. The poses are wonderful: Jones causally sits on a chair and Clark holds a borrowed sword and rides a toy horse in front of a camp scene.

William Houston House, 16th Battalion, Georgia Partisan Rangers
David W. Vaughan Collection
Spring 2020

Summary: In early 1862, William Houston House, a 23-year-old native of Statham, a community outside Athens, Ga., enrolled in the local Jackson County Cavalry. Together with his older brother, James Lawrence House, he and the rest of the company mustered into Confederate service as Company E of the 16th Battalion, Georgia Partisan Rangers. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: From the first moment I glimpsed this portrait in person at David’s home, I knew it would be on the cover of our spring issue. The photographer captured House, posed with weapons of war and a unique cap, at the outset of a conflict that cost dearly in blood and treasure—far beyond the comprehension of anyone. And, here, House sits, not knowing of the privations he and his family would face. It is an iconic Confederate soldier image.

Sherman at 200
Jerry Everts Collection
Spring 2020

Summary: William Tecumseh Sherman is front and center in 25 portraits that document his rise from major general in 1863 to General of the Army to his retirement. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: Jerry and I had been scanning his collection of images in small batches at various Civil War shows. Choosing the final group from the dozens in Jerry’s collection was a challenge—but this image of Uncle Billy in his golden years really resonated with me. Though in the winter of life, his piercing, commanding gaze is as powerful—perhaps even more so—than the Sherman who marched through Georgia and into the Carolinas.

Vinnie Ream’s Commission of a Lifetime
Mahlon Nichols Collection
Summer 2020

Summary: A tintype, believed to be previously unpublished, features Lavinia Ellen “Vinnie” Ream, the sculptor who rose in prominence during the Civil War. Her best known works are of President Abraham Lincoln—an 1864 bust for which he sat, and an 1871 statue that stands in the U.S. Capitol rotunda. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: This brooding portrait of the artist in costume, cross and sandals suggests to me that Ream has immersed herself in antiquity inspired by her sojourn to Italy, where it is believed she posed for this portrait. The tinting to the photograph adds to the mystique of the young woman who sculpted the most celebrated busts of Lincoln from life.

Captured During Barksdale’s Charge
Dan Schwab Collection
Summer 2020

Summary: Newton J. Ragon, a private in the 13th Mississippi Infantry. Fell into enemy hands during the charge at Gettysburg considered by some historians to be the high water of Confederate arms. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: Another candidate for iconic Southern soldier portrait. His military weapons, unmilitary clothing and fanciful cap personifies the citizen soldier who served the Confederacy.

A Freedman’s Story
Ross J. Kelbaugh Collection
Autumn 2020

Summary: On June 18, 1864, Union Capt. Horace James inscribed the back of a carte de visite of William Headley, who he encountered dressed in tattered clothing. The captain’s words tell the tale of a slave’s escape to freedom. Headley’s fate is not known. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: The patchwork nature of his clothes is a testament to his condition as an enslaved person, and his upturned face suggests he was a man of grit determined to break the metaphoric and perhaps physical chains that bound him and his family. This is a portrait of struggle in a race war that we continue to fight today.

The “Chaplain of Hood’s Texas Brigade”
Dan Schwab Collection
Autumn 2020

Summary: Chaplain Nicholas A. Davis was an Alabama-born slaveholder who settled in the Lone Star State prior to the war and joined Confederate service as chaplain of the 4th Texas Infantry. His 1863 book, Campaign from Texas to Maryland, with the Battle of Fredericksburg, reveals his allegiance to the South and hatred of Yankees. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: The content of this portrait, showing Davis in his custom-designed uniform with the Bible and candles, is exceptionally rare. Moreover, this photo, one of three he commissioned, is documented in his book.

New York Continentals
Dan Binder Collection
Autumn 2020

Summary: In “Uniforms Inspired by the “Old Seventy-Sixers,” Senior Editor Ron Field examines the distinctive militia uniforms inspired by Gen. George Washington’s Continentals. See the full story.

Why I selected this photo: When Ron Field suggested documenting the Continental influence in Civil War images I jumped at the opportunity. I’m enamored of the idea of men of 1861 being inspired by Washington’s Army—and this image captures the essence of America’s connection to our first President and Commander-In-Chief.

Finding Aid: Autumn 2020

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF ($16.00)
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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures Chaplain Nicholas A. Davis of the 4th Texas Infantry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor puts photographs and stories of Civil War soldiers and sailors into context in “Guidebook to Our American Journey.”

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for Adam Ochs Fleischer’s Behind the Backdrop column, and thoughts on a lantern slide Barbara Fritchie that appeared in our summer issue.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A study of 250 Civil War soldier and sailor cartes de visite taken by photographers across the country reveals six major styles of mount borders.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
MI Senior Editor Ron Field’s new book, Uniforms of the Union Volunteers of 1861: The Mid-Atlantic States, examines distinctive uniforms worn by Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, Jerseymen, Delawareans, Marylanders and soldiers from the District of Columbia.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “The Art of Photo Sleuthing,” Luther examines how paintings, long the dominant portraiture form prior to the advent of photography, are a neglected resource that should be considered when researching the identity of a Civil War soldier.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A quarter-plate tintype pictures an unusual view of a soldier wearing a Pattern 1839 “wheel cap” with a glazed linen rain cover.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Sergeant Lester Archer of the 96th New York Infantry carried the colors of his regiment during the assault of Union forces against Fort Harrison. He planted the flag on the enemy parapet and for his action received the Medal of Honor.

Most Hallowed Ground by Carolyn B. Ivanoff, with images from the Captain Wilson French Collection (p. 16)
The zenith of Maj. William H. Hugo’s military career occurred at Gettysburg’s Peach Orchard. The low point came in the West in 1881 when he was court martialed. The story of how his highs and lows is told here.

The Citizenry by Elizabeth Topping(p. 18)
In “The Circuit Rider,” we meet Rev. Allen H. Tilton, a traveling Methodist clergyman who spread the word of God throughout central Ohio. In 1864, he traveled 7,000 miles to 100 locations across the Buckeye State.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In “Bogus Modern Ink Identifications,” Frohne details how fakers add signatures and related inscriptions to dramatically increase the value of cartes de visite, and how to tell the difference between a faked signature and the real thing.

Chaplain Chronicles (pp. 23-46)
Faces of 40 Union and Confederate clergymen and their stories of spirituality, slavery, courage, caregiving, patriotism, suffering and death during the Civil War.

Agent of the Cotton War by Ron Maness, with images and artifacts from the author’s collection (pp. 48-57)
Most know James T. Ames as a New England sword maker. He was also a global manufacturer of munitions and cotton machinery with Confederate connections. This investigation into is connections involves pikes supplied to abolitionist John Brown, dealings with Great Britain and sales of weapons and machinery to the Southern states before, during and after secession.

Charley’s Album: A pocket-sized treasure recalls a Connecticut officer’s war experience by Dione Longley and Buck Zaidel (pp. 58-61)
Civil War soldiers filled uncounted albums with photographs of their pards to remember friendships forged against a backdrop of war. Time has taken many of them from us. Some survived intact, including this worn leather album small enough to slide into a shirt pocket. It holds just ten photographs—one Charley Deming’s world.

Perfect Tiger: Connecticut’s Col. Elisha Strong Kellogg by Dione Longley and Buck Zaidel, with images and artifacts from the Buck Zaidel Collection (pp. 62-66)
The colonel who led the 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery into the 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor was a study in contrasts. “His nature was versatile, and full of contradictions; sometimes exhibiting the tenderest sensibilities and sometimes none at all,” noted one soldier. Beloved by his men, Kellogg’s destiny rose and fell with his regiment.

Caught in the Crossfire: A surgeon in Sherman’s Army between quarreling generals by Frank Jastrzembski (pp. 67-69)
Medical Director Surg. Norman Gay incurred the wrath of Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sweeny while trying to protect a corps ambulance, and in doing so wandered into an infamous feed between Sweeny and another general, Grenville M. Dodge. Here’s the story.

Grant After Vicksburg: Solving the mystery of who took the general’s photograph by James Bultema (pp. 70-71)
The summer of 1863 was a career-defining period for Ulysses S. Grant as his army captured Vicksburg and secured the Mississippi River for the Union. Five portraits taken of the victorious general weeks later picture Grant as he looked during the historic moment. The author shares his evidence for who he believes is the photographer who made the images.

Material Culture by Ron Field (pp. 72-76)
In “Uniforms Inspired by the “Old Seventy-Sixers,” Field examines the distinctive militia uniforms inspired by Gen. George Washington’s Continentals.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 77)
Included are portraits of a soldier with a unique belt, an unidentified chaplain and a sergeant who likely served in an infantry regiment that belonged to the U.S. Colored Troops.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 78-79)
In “Beaufort’s Mystery Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas connected to portraits taken in Beaufort, S.C., in 1862.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Brian Boeve Collection pictures a Confederate brandishing a revolver produced by the Starr Arms Company.

Finding Aid: Summer 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures Newton J. Ragon of the 13th Mississippi Infantry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor dedicates his column to “Publishing in a Pandemic.”

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments about the loss of historical context when mats and cases are replaced on hard-plate images, details about Col. John R. Hart’s 6th Georgia Cavalry, and inherent problems with colorization.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
Visualizing Edward and Henry T. Anthony’s November 1862 Catalogue of Card Photographs as a pie chart.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
MI Senior Editor Ron Field reviews American Zouaves, 1859-1959: An Illustrated History (McFarland & Company, Inc.) by Daniel J. Miller.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “How to Trust the Worthiness of an Identification,” Luther reveals the results of a survey of collectors to gauge various forms of image identification. He grouped the data into three categories, high-, medium-, and low-touch sources. Period inscriptions on the photograph with validation scored highest, and images identified only with military records and other textual documents scored lowest.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A quarter-plate daguerreotype of John Reynolds by renowned photographer Jeremiah Gurney may have been a portrait promised to his sister, Ellie, in an 1858 letter.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Christopher C. Bruton of the 22nd New York Cavalry told the story of his capture of the headquarters flag of Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal Early to a group gathered at the War Department in Washington, D.C., in March 1865. Among those present were Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Libby Custer, the wife of the general in whose division Bruton served. A son of Ireland, Bruton received the nation’s highest military honor for his act.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 16)
William Henry Gobrecht, surgeon of the 49th Pennsylvania Infantry, enjoyed high name recognition among health care workers. In 1858, his American edition of the textbook Wilson’s Anatomy become the standard text for doctors. His postwar career brought him to Washington, D.C. for a job at the Pension Bureau. Upon his death in 1901, his remains were interred in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 18)
A tintype, believed to be previously unpublished, features Lavinia Ellen “Vinnie” Ream, the sculptor who rose in prominence during the Civil War. Her best known works are of Abraham Lincoln—an 1864 bust for which he sat, and an 1871 statue that stands in the U.S. Capitol rotunda.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “Rembrandt You Are Not, Sir!,” Frohne details how fakers use paint to transform ambrotypes and tintypes of civilians into soldiers and sailors.

Three Days in July: Faces of Union and Confederate Soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg, edited by Charles Joyce (pp. 24-39)
A collection of more than two dozen ambrotypes, cartes de visite, and tintypes of Union and Confederate soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg, each accompanied by the story of each man’s experience during the fight. Among those included are 1st Lt. Robert C. Knaggs of the 7th Michigan Infantry, Pvt. Clark Stevens of the 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, Pvt. Hiram Gilbert of 76th New York Infantry, Lt. Col. Theobold Alexander Von Mitzel of the 74th Pennsylvania Infantry, Pvt. David “Davy” Barnum of the 5th Alabama Infantry, Capt. James Washington Beck of the 44th Georgia Infantry, Lt. Col. Wharton Jackson “Jack” Green of Tennessee and more. Contributions of images and text included Rick Carlile, Ronald S. Coddington, Guy DiMasi, Thomas Harris, Tom Huntington, Britt C. Isenberg, Ross J. Kelbaugh, Jeff Kowalis, C. Paul Loane, August Marchetti, Paul Russinoff, Dan Schwab, Karl Sundstrom and Daniel Taylor.

America’s “Good Death”: Capt. Charles W. Billings of the 20th Maine Infantry at Little Round Top by Paul Russinoff (pp. 40-45)
Capt. Charles W. Billings of the 20th Maine Infantry suffered a mortal wound at Little Round Top. Russinoff brings together primary sources and artifacts for the first time to tell Billings’ story, which underscores historian Drew Gilpin-Faust’s concept of “The Good Death.”

A Romance Fueled by Photographs: At Gettysburg, an Iron Brigade Bandsman and a former tavern keeper’s daughter find love and likeness by Charles Joyce (pp. 46-49)
The Adams County Courthouse in downtown Gettysburg became a scene of death and dying during the fighting as the recently constructed building became a makeshift hospital. It also provided the backdrop for love between Susie Herr, the daughter of a former tavern keeper, and German immigrant Jacob F. Gundrum, a musician in the band of the famed Iron Brigade. This is their story.

The Likeness and Legacy of The Children: A history, study and survey of an iconic Civil War image by Mark H. Dunkelman and Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 50-53)
The death of Amos Humiston of the 154th New York Infantry at Gettysburg and the ambrotype of his three children clutched in his hands is one of the best-known stories of the Civil War. Historian Dunkelman, who has written extensively about Humiston and the 154th, and MI Contributing Editor Leisenring team up to examine surviving images of “The Children of The Battle-Field.”

Old Abe and the Army of the American Eagle by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 54-57)
Chicago printer Alfred L. Sewell devised a novel fundraiser to support the Union army: Selling carte de visite sized portraits of Old Abe, the famed Eagle mascot of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry. Sewell targeted kids, who purchased tens of thousands of the images under the auspices of the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Children earned commissions in Old Abe’s army, and a small number received Medals of Honor for the number of images purchased.

Before Movies, Americans Viewed the Civil War Through the Magic Lantern by Robert Marcus (pp. 58-61)
During the years following the Civil War, American audiences packed venues across the country to experience the late conflict through glass plates projected on a big screen—the precursor to motion pictures.

The Last Parade: Cameras captured the pomp and circumstance in New York City on July 4, 1860. Nine months later, the Civil War began by Ron Field (pp. 63-66)
Photographer Edward Anthony and his assistants set up stereoscopic cameras at two locations to capture the city’s militia marching along the Independence Day parade route. Field details the regiments pictured in nine surviving stereo cards.

Mariner. Teamster. Refugee. Surgeon’s Steward. The life and naval service of William Tyler Cross by Jack Hurov (pp. 68-70)
William Tyler Cross became an unlikely pawn in game of political brinkmanship between the U.S. and Mexico in 1862. He managed to return safely and went on to serve in one of the Navy’s most underappreciated positions—surgeon’s steward. The role was similar to its counterpart in the army, the hospital steward.

Journey to Lynchburg: William Hawkins of the 15th New York Cavalry in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley by James Crane III (pp. 72-74)
Hawkins suffered a gunshot in the head an instant death during an action in the Diamond Hill neighborhood of Lynchburg, Va., on June 17, 1864. He had been in uniform for less than a year. A farmer, he left behind a widowed wife and three orphaned children—and two photographs in civilian clothes and a military uniform.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 75)
Included are portraits of two revolver-packing Union troopers, a Bluejacket, and a teamster taken in Corinth, Miss.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 78-79)
In “Wartime Letters Document the 2nd Cavalry Division Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas with tents, a guard and hills with forts.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A cabinet card from the Robert Elliott Collection pictures a painting of Col. Harry Burgwyn of the 26th North Carolina Infantry, who suffered a mortal wound in a charge against elements of the Iron Brigade on July 1, 1863. The photograph was presented to the officer who succeeded Burgwyn in command, Lt. Col. John R. Lane.

Finding Aid: Spring 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A half-plate ambrotype from the David W. Vaughan Collection pictures William Houston House of the 13th Georgia Cavalry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor introduces two new departments, Behind the Backdrop by Adam Ochs Fleischer and Material Culture, which is guest hosted. The editor also notes a modification in policy regarding colorized images, which will be allowed for educational purposes. Such images reproduced in the magazine will be accompanied by the un-colorized image.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments on Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds,and a note regarding a misidentified epaulette.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A tree map diagram visualizes enlistments in the Union and Confederate armies.

Passing in Review (pp. 6-8)
Featured media includes The 16th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War (Michigan State University Press) by Kim Crawford, 100 Significant Civil War Photographs: Atlanta Campaign (Historical Publications LLC), and the movie short Hold My Horse (Look Around You Ventures, LLC) starring Christian Stolte and Patrick Webb.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-13)
In “Lost and Found in the Library of Congress,” Luther details his journey that began with a questionable caption on a single glass plate negative and ended with an extensive examination of captions attached to 16 negatives—11 of which he found proved incorrect or unclear.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 14)
A sixth-plate ambrotype discovered in Florence, S.C., pictures a militiaman. He may have been a member of the Darlington Rifles, a local militia company.

The Honored Few (p. 16)
Willie Johnston, an 11-year-old drummer in the 3rd Vermont Infantry, managed to hold on to his instrument during the desperate march from the Malvern Hill battlefield to Harrison’s Landing. On July 4, 1862, after Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan ordered a review to boost morale, only Johnston had a drum to play. Other musicians had either discarded their drums during the march or put them in temporary storage aboard baggage wagons. Word of Willie’s lone performance made its way to Washington, D.C., and resulted in his receipt of the nation’s highest military honor.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 18)
Navy Rear Adm. Richard Worsam Meade was an irascible man, a trait he shared in common with his famous uncle, Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade. Rear Adm. Meade’s temper got the best of him late in his career when he insulted President and Commander-in-Chief Grover Cleveland. The incident ended with Meade’s dismissal from the Navy. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 20)
Four-year-old Major Willie Bagley, “The Wisconsin Infant Drummer,” enjoyed a brief stint in the spotlight as a performer for P.T. Barnum. The legendary Barnum posted with Bagley to mark the association.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “The Weaponization of Technology and Psychology,” Frohne details how today’s forgers  “are far smarter, have far better technology, and are very close to producing perfect fake cartes de visite.” He illustrates the column with two cartes that fooled him.

Georgians in Gray: Images from the David W. Vaughan Collection, with text by August Marchetti (pp. 24-35)
More than 15 years ago, a gallery of David W. Vaughan’s portraits of Georgia Confederates debuted in this magazine. Since then, the collection has been recognized across the country, including the landmark 2013 exhibit Photography and the American Civil War at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Vaughan has continued to add to his collection. This gallery highlights recent acquisitions.

Commemorating Uncle Billy’s 200th Birthday in Portraits, with images from the Jerry Everts Collection (pp. 36-45)
William Tecumseh Sherman is front center in 25 portraits that document his rise from major general in 1863 to General of the Army to his retirement.

Chivalrous Legacy: The story behind Tunis A.M. Craven’s last recorded words at Mobile Bay by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 46-48)
The Battle of Mobile Bay is known for two distinct human moments connected to torpedoes: Read Adm. David Farragut’s utterance paraphrased as “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead,” and Cmdr. Tunis Augustus Macdonough Craven’s words as his ironclad Tecumseh sank, “After you, sir.” This story puts Craven’s words in context, and is illustrated with four portraits of him.

Antebellum Midshipmen: A survey of Navy portraits with images from the Dr. William Schultz Collection (pp. 50-54)
Fourth in a series of galleries of pre-Civil War daguerreotypes from the Schultz collection, this survey examines nine portraits. They include an early view of a midshipman by pioneer photographer John Plumbe, John “Jack” Wilkes, Jr., the son of career naval officer Charles Wilkes, and John Gardner Mitchell, for whom Mitchell Bay in Alaska is named.

A Merchant Prince Goes to War: Baltimore’s Lt. Noah Dixon Walker, C.S.A. by Ronald S. Coddington with Ross J. Kelbaugh (pp. 56-60)
Noah Dixon Walker received an offer of $200,000 ($6 million in today’s dollars) not to enlist in the Confederate army. The man who made the offer was his father, wealthy Baltimore merchant Noah Walker. His son passed on the offer to become an officer in the 44th Virginia Infantry. This is his story.

Accidental American, Soldier, Artist, Photographer: The notable journey of Civil War veteran William Kurtz by Scott Valentine (pp. 62-65)
After fate dashed his dream to start a new life in China, Germany’s William Kurtz found himself stranded on the shores of the U.S. with little money and prospects. He managed to find a job in a New York City photographer’s studio, and it launched him on a prosperous high-profile career.

Inside “The Empty Sleeve” by James S. Brust (pp. 66-67)
Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard is perhaps best remembered for his post-Civil War roles with the Freedman’s Bureau and the establishment of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Far less known is a speech he gave in Maine soon after the amputation of his arm after it was severely damaged during the 1862 Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. Howard’s words inspired poet David Barker’s “The Empty Sleeve,” which holds a unique place in American popular culture.

Seamless Sharpshooters: How a revolutionary breakthrough in garment design proved undesirable in war by Brian T. White (pp. 68-70)
Seamless overcoats proved the rage in the late 1850s, thanks to innovative efforts to manipulate wool into form-fitting clothing. Among those who took advantage of the latest technology was Col. Hiram Berdan, the engineer, inventor and crack marksman who raised two regiments of sharpshooters for the Union army. His men received seamless overcoats as part of their standard issue uniform.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 72-75)
In his inaugural column, “A Daguerreian Pioneer at the Rendezvous of Distribution,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas depicting a scene that includes Sibley tents and a palm tree. His investigations highlight the man behind the backdrop, John Jones, and the gallery he operated.

Material Culture by Frederick C. Gaede (pp. 76-77)
In this inaugural column, guest author Gaede investigates leather neck stocks from 1851-1865. Though they are long gone from the military, they live on in the Marine moniker “Leatherneck.”

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 79)
Included are three portraits of Union soldiers, including a Zouave who served in the 9th New York Infantry from the Anthony F. Gero Collection.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Paul Russinoff Collection pictures a man reading a newspaper. He is dressed in shirtsleeves and what appears to be a military vest.