Military Images

Finding Aid: Autumn 2020

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures Chaplain Nicholas A. Davis of the 4th Texas Infantry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor puts photographs and stories of Civil War soldiers and sailors into context in “Guidebook to Our American Journey.”

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for Adam Ochs Fleischer’s Behind the Backdrop column, and thoughts on a lantern slide Barbara Fritchie that appeared in our summer issue.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A study of 250 Civil War soldier and sailor cartes de visite taken by photographers across the country reveals six major styles of mount borders.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
MI Senior Editor Ron Field’s new book, Uniforms of the Union Volunteers of 1861: The Mid-Atlantic States, examines distinctive uniforms worn by Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, Jerseymen, Delawareans, Marylanders and soldiers from the District of Columbia.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “The Art of Photo Sleuthing,” Luther examines how paintings, long the dominant portraiture form prior to the advent of photography, are a neglected resource that should be considered when researching the identity of a Civil War soldier.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A quarter-plate tintype pictures an unusual view of a soldier wearing a Pattern 1839 “wheel cap” with a glazed linen rain cover.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Sergeant Lester Archer of the 96th New York Infantry carried the colors of his regiment during the assault of Union forces against Fort Harrison. He planted the flag on the enemy parapet and for his action received the Medal of Honor.

Most Hallowed Ground by Carolyn B. Ivanoff, with images from the Captain Wilson French Collection (p. 16)
The zenith of Maj. William H. Hugo’s military career occurred at Gettysburg’s Peach Orchard. The low point came in the West in 1881 when he was court martialed. The story of how his highs and lows is told here.

The Citizenry by Elizabeth Topping(p. 18)
In “The Circuit Rider,” we meet Rev. Allen H. Tilton, a traveling Methodist clergyman who spread the word of God throughout central Ohio. In 1864, he traveled 7,000 miles to 100 locations across the Buckeye State.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In “Bogus Modern Ink Identifications,” Frohne details how fakers add signatures and related inscriptions to dramatically increase the value of cartes de visite, and how to tell the difference between a faked signature and the real thing.

Chaplain Chronicles (pp. 23-46)
Faces of 40 Union and Confederate clergymen and their stories of spirituality, slavery, courage, caregiving, patriotism, suffering and death during the Civil War.

Agent of the Cotton War by Ron Maness, with images and artifacts from the author’s collection (pp. 48-57)
Most know James T. Ames as a New England sword maker. He was also a global manufacturer of munitions and cotton machinery with Confederate connections. This investigation into is connections involves pikes supplied to abolitionist John Brown, dealings with Great Britain and sales of weapons and machinery to the Southern states before, during and after secession.

Charley’s Album: A pocket-sized treasure recalls a Connecticut officer’s war experience by Dione Longley and Buck Zaidel (pp. 58-61)
Civil War soldiers filled uncounted albums with photographs of their pards to remember friendships forged against a backdrop of war. Time has taken many of them from us. Some survived intact, including this worn leather album small enough to slide into a shirt pocket. It holds just ten photographs—one Charley Deming’s world.

Perfect Tiger: Connecticut’s Col. Elisha Strong Kellogg by Dione Longley and Buck Zaidel, with images and artifacts from the Buck Zaidel Collection (pp. 62-66)
The colonel who led the 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery into the 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor was a study in contrasts. “His nature was versatile, and full of contradictions; sometimes exhibiting the tenderest sensibilities and sometimes none at all,” noted one soldier. Beloved by his men, Kellogg’s destiny rose and fell with his regiment.

Caught in the Crossfire: A surgeon in Sherman’s Army between quarreling generals by Frank Jastrzembski (pp. 67-69)
Medical Director Surg. Norman Gay incurred the wrath of Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sweeny while trying to protect a corps ambulance, and in doing so wandered into an infamous feed between Sweeny and another general, Grenville M. Dodge. Here’s the story.

Grant After Vicksburg: Solving the mystery of who took the general’s photograph by James Bultema (pp. 70-71)
The summer of 1863 was a career-defining period for Ulysses S. Grant as his army captured Vicksburg and secured the Mississippi River for the Union. Five portraits taken of the victorious general weeks later picture Grant as he looked during the historic moment. The author shares his evidence for who he believes is the photographer who made the images.

Material Culture by Ron Field (pp. 72-76)
In “Uniforms Inspired by the “Old Seventy-Sixers,” Field examines the distinctive militia uniforms inspired by Gen. George Washington’s Continentals.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 77)
Included are portraits of a soldier with a unique belt, an unidentified chaplain and a sergeant who likely served in an infantry regiment that belonged to the U.S. Colored Troops.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 78-79)
In “Beaufort’s Mystery Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas connected to portraits taken in Beaufort, S.C., in 1862.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Brian Boeve Collection pictures a Confederate brandishing a revolver produced by the Starr Arms Company.

Finding Aid: Summer 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3
(80 pages)

Purchase ($8.00 plus postage)
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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures Newton J. Ragon of the 13th Mississippi Infantry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor dedicates his column to “Publishing in a Pandemic.”

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments about the loss of historical context when mats and cases are replaced on hard-plate images, details about Col. John R. Hart’s 6th Georgia Cavalry, and inherent problems with colorization.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
Visualizing Edward and Henry T. Anthony’s November 1862 Catalogue of Card Photographs as a pie chart.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
MI Senior Editor Ron Field reviews American Zouaves, 1859-1959: An Illustrated History (McFarland & Company, Inc.) by Daniel J. Miller.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “How to Trust the Worthiness of an Identification,” Luther reveals the results of a survey of collectors to gauge various forms of image identification. He grouped the data into three categories, high-, medium-, and low-touch sources. Period inscriptions on the photograph with validation scored highest, and images identified only with military records and other textual documents scored lowest.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A quarter-plate daguerreotype of John Reynolds by renowned photographer Jeremiah Gurney may have been a portrait promised to his sister, Ellie, in an 1858 letter.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Christopher C. Bruton of the 22nd New York Cavalry told the story of his capture of the headquarters flag of Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal Early to a group gathered at the War Department in Washington, D.C., in March 1865. Among those present were Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Libby Custer, the wife of the general in whose division Bruton served. A son of Ireland, Bruton received the nation’s highest military honor for his act.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 16)
William Henry Gobrecht, surgeon of the 49th Pennsylvania Infantry, enjoyed high name recognition among health care workers. In 1858, his American edition of the textbook Wilson’s Anatomy become the standard text for doctors. His postwar career brought him to Washington, D.C. for a job at the Pension Bureau. Upon his death in 1901, his remains were interred in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 18)
A tintype, believed to be previously unpublished, features Lavinia Ellen “Vinnie” Ream, the sculptor who rose in prominence during the Civil War. Her best known works are of Abraham Lincoln—an 1864 bust for which he sat, and an 1871 statue that stands in the U.S. Capitol rotunda.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “Rembrandt You Are Not, Sir!,” Frohne details how fakers use paint to transform ambrotypes and tintypes of civilians into soldiers and sailors.

Three Days in July: Faces of Union and Confederate Soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg, edited by Charles Joyce (pp. 24-39)
A collection of more than two dozen ambrotypes, cartes de visite, and tintypes of Union and Confederate soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg, each accompanied by the story of each man’s experience during the fight. Among those included are 1st Lt. Robert C. Knaggs of the 7th Michigan Infantry, Pvt. Clark Stevens of the 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, Pvt. Hiram Gilbert of 76th New York Infantry, Lt. Col. Theobold Alexander Von Mitzel of the 74th Pennsylvania Infantry, Pvt. David “Davy” Barnum of the 5th Alabama Infantry, Capt. James Washington Beck of the 44th Georgia Infantry, Lt. Col. Wharton Jackson “Jack” Green of Tennessee and more. Contributions of images and text included Rick Carlile, Ronald S. Coddington, Guy DiMasi, Thomas Harris, Tom Huntington, Britt C. Isenberg, Ross J. Kelbaugh, Jeff Kowalis, C. Paul Loane, August Marchetti, Paul Russinoff, Dan Schwab, Karl Sundstrom and Daniel Taylor.

America’s “Good Death”: Capt. Charles W. Billings of the 20th Maine Infantry at Little Round Top by Paul Russinoff (pp. 40-45)
Capt. Charles W. Billings of the 20th Maine Infantry suffered a mortal wound at Little Round Top. Russinoff brings together primary sources and artifacts for the first time to tell Billings’ story, which underscores historian Drew Gilpin-Faust’s concept of “The Good Death.”

A Romance Fueled by Photographs: At Gettysburg, an Iron Brigade Bandsman and a former tavern keeper’s daughter find love and likeness by Charles Joyce (pp. 46-49)
The Adams County Courthouse in downtown Gettysburg became a scene of death and dying during the fighting as the recently constructed building became a makeshift hospital. It also provided the backdrop for love between Susie Herr, the daughter of a former tavern keeper, and German immigrant Jacob F. Gundrum, a musician in the band of the famed Iron Brigade. This is their story.

The Likeness and Legacy of The Children: A history, study and survey of an iconic Civil War image by Mark H. Dunkelman and Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 50-53)
The death of Amos Humiston of the 154th New York Infantry at Gettysburg and the ambrotype of his three children clutched in his hands is one of the best-known stories of the Civil War. Historian Dunkelman, who has written extensively about Humiston and the 154th, and MI Contributing Editor Leisenring team up to examine surviving images of “The Children of The Battle-Field.”

Old Abe and the Army of the American Eagle by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 54-57)
Chicago printer Alfred L. Sewell devised a novel fundraiser to support the Union army: Selling carte de visite sized portraits of Old Abe, the famed Eagle mascot of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry. Sewell targeted kids, who purchased tens of thousands of the images under the auspices of the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Children earned commissions in Old Abe’s army, and a small number received Medals of Honor for the number of images purchased.

Before Movies, Americans Viewed the Civil War Through the Magic Lantern by Robert Marcus (pp. 58-61)
During the years following the Civil War, American audiences packed venues across the country to experience the late conflict through glass plates projected on a big screen—the precursor to motion pictures.

The Last Parade: Cameras captured the pomp and circumstance in New York City on July 4, 1860. Nine months later, the Civil War began by Ron Field (pp. 63-66)
Photographer Edward Anthony and his assistants set up stereoscopic cameras at two locations to capture the city’s militia marching along the Independence Day parade route. Field details the regiments pictured in nine surviving stereo cards.

Mariner. Teamster. Refugee. Surgeon’s Steward. The life and naval service of William Tyler Cross by Jack Hurov (pp. 68-70)
William Tyler Cross became an unlikely pawn in game of political brinkmanship between the U.S. and Mexico in 1862. He managed to return safely and went on to serve in one of the Navy’s most underappreciated positions—surgeon’s steward. The role was similar to its counterpart in the army, the hospital steward.

Journey to Lynchburg: William Hawkins of the 15th New York Cavalry in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley by James Crane III (pp. 72-74)
Hawkins suffered a gunshot in the head an instant death during an action in the Diamond Hill neighborhood of Lynchburg, Va., on June 17, 1864. He had been in uniform for less than a year. A farmer, he left behind a widowed wife and three orphaned children—and two photographs in civilian clothes and a military uniform.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 75)
Included are portraits of two revolver-packing Union troopers, a Bluejacket, and a teamster taken in Corinth, Miss.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 78-79)
In “Wartime Letters Document the 2nd Cavalry Division Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas with tents, a guard and hills with forts.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A cabinet card from the Robert Elliott Collection pictures a painting of Col. Harry Burgwyn of the 26th North Carolina Infantry, who suffered a mortal wound in a charge against elements of the Iron Brigade on July 1, 1863. The photograph was presented to the officer who succeeded Burgwyn in command, Lt. Col. John R. Lane.

Finding Aid: Spring 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2
(80 pages)

Purchase ($8.00 plus postage)
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
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Inside

Cover image
A half-plate ambrotype from the David W. Vaughan Collection pictures William Houston House of the 13th Georgia Cavalry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor introduces two new departments, Behind the Backdrop by Adam Ochs Fleischer and Material Culture, which is guest hosted. The editor also notes a modification in policy regarding colorized images, which will be allowed for educational purposes. Such images reproduced in the magazine will be accompanied by the un-colorized image.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments on Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds,and a note regarding a misidentified epaulette.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A tree map diagram visualizes enlistments in the Union and Confederate armies.

Passing in Review (pp. 6-8)
Featured media includes The 16th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War (Michigan State University Press) by Kim Crawford, 100 Significant Civil War Photographs: Atlanta Campaign (Historical Publications LLC), and the movie short Hold My Horse (Look Around You Ventures, LLC) starring Christian Stolte and Patrick Webb.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-13)
In “Lost and Found in the Library of Congress,” Luther details his journey that began with a questionable caption on a single glass plate negative and ended with an extensive examination of captions attached to 16 negatives—11 of which he found proved incorrect or unclear.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 14)
A sixth-plate ambrotype discovered in Florence, S.C., pictures a militiaman. He may have been a member of the Darlington Rifles, a local militia company.

The Honored Few (p. 16)
Willie Johnston, an 11-year-old drummer in the 3rd Vermont Infantry, managed to hold on to his instrument during the desperate march from the Malvern Hill battlefield to Harrison’s Landing. On July 4, 1862, after Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan ordered a review to boost morale, only Johnston had a drum to play. Other musicians had either discarded their drums during the march or put them in temporary storage aboard baggage wagons. Word of Willie’s lone performance made its way to Washington, D.C., and resulted in his receipt of the nation’s highest military honor.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 18)
Navy Rear Adm. Richard Worsam Meade was an irascible man, a trait he shared in common with his famous uncle, Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade. Rear Adm. Meade’s temper got the best of him late in his career when he insulted President and Commander-in-Chief Grover Cleveland. The incident ended with Meade’s dismissal from the Navy. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 20)
Four-year-old Major Willie Bagley, “The Wisconsin Infant Drummer,” enjoyed a brief stint in the spotlight as a performer for P.T. Barnum. The legendary Barnum posted with Bagley to mark the association.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “The Weaponization of Technology and Psychology,” Frohne details how today’s forgers  “are far smarter, have far better technology, and are very close to producing perfect fake cartes de visite.” He illustrates the column with two cartes that fooled him.

Georgians in Gray: Images from the David W. Vaughan Collection, with text by August Marchetti (pp. 24-35)
More than 15 years ago, a gallery of David W. Vaughan’s portraits of Georgia Confederates debuted in this magazine. Since then, the collection has been recognized across the country, including the landmark 2013 exhibit Photography and the American Civil War at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Vaughan has continued to add to his collection. This gallery highlights recent acquisitions.

Commemorating Uncle Billy’s 200th Birthday in Portraits, with images from the Jerry Everts Collection (pp. 36-45)
William Tecumseh Sherman is front center in 25 portraits that document his rise from major general in 1863 to General of the Army to his retirement.

Chivalrous Legacy: The story behind Tunis A.M. Craven’s last recorded words at Mobile Bay by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 46-48)
The Battle of Mobile Bay is known for two distinct human moments connected to torpedoes: Read Adm. David Farragut’s utterance paraphrased as “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead,” and Cmdr. Tunis Augustus Macdonough Craven’s words as his ironclad Tecumseh sank, “After you, sir.” This story puts Craven’s words in context, and is illustrated with four portraits of him.

Antebellum Midshipmen: A survey of Navy portraits with images from the Dr. William Schultz Collection (pp. 50-54)
Fourth in a series of galleries of pre-Civil War daguerreotypes from the Schultz collection, this survey examines nine portraits. They include an early view of a midshipman by pioneer photographer John Plumbe, John “Jack” Wilkes, Jr., the son of career naval officer Charles Wilkes, and John Gardner Mitchell, for whom Mitchell Bay in Alaska is named.

A Merchant Prince Goes to War: Baltimore’s Lt. Noah Dixon Walker, C.S.A. by Ronald S. Coddington with Ross J. Kelbaugh (pp. 56-60)
Noah Dixon Walker received an offer of $200,000 ($6 million in today’s dollars) not to enlist in the Confederate army. The man who made the offer was his father, wealthy Baltimore merchant Noah Walker. His son passed on the offer to become an officer in the 44th Virginia Infantry. This is his story.

Accidental American, Soldier, Artist, Photographer: The notable journey of Civil War veteran William Kurtz by Scott Valentine (pp. 62-65)
After fate dashed his dream to start a new life in China, Germany’s William Kurtz found himself stranded on the shores of the U.S. with little money and prospects. He managed to find a job in a New York City photographer’s studio, and it launched him on a prosperous high-profile career.

Inside “The Empty Sleeve” by James S. Brust (pp. 66-67)
Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard is perhaps best remembered for his post-Civil War roles with the Freedman’s Bureau and the establishment of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Far less known is a speech he gave in Maine soon after the amputation of his arm after it was severely damaged during the 1862 Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. Howard’s words inspired poet David Barker’s “The Empty Sleeve,” which holds a unique place in American popular culture.

Seamless Sharpshooters: How a revolutionary breakthrough in garment design proved undesirable in war by Brian T. White (pp. 68-70)
Seamless overcoats proved the rage in the late 1850s, thanks to innovative efforts to manipulate wool into form-fitting clothing. Among those who took advantage of the latest technology was Col. Hiram Berdan, the engineer, inventor and crack marksman who raised two regiments of sharpshooters for the Union army. His men received seamless overcoats as part of their standard issue uniform.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 72-75)
In his inaugural column, “A Daguerreian Pioneer at the Rendezvous of Distribution,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas depicting a scene that includes Sibley tents and a palm tree. His investigations highlight the man behind the backdrop, John Jones, and the gallery he operated.

Material Culture by Frederick C. Gaede (pp. 76-77)
In this inaugural column, guest author Gaede investigates leather neck stocks from 1851-1865. Though they are long gone from the military, they live on in the Marine moniker “Leatherneck.”

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 79)
Included are three portraits of Union soldiers, including a Zouave who served in the 9th New York Infantry from the Anthony F. Gero Collection.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Paul Russinoff Collection pictures a man reading a newspaper. He is dressed in shirtsleeves and what appears to be a military vest.

Finding Aid: Winter 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 1
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Gary Waddey Collection pictures Ned and Gabe Fowlkes of Tennessee. Taken about October 1865, Ned served in the Union army and Gabe in the Confederate military.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor reflects on the generosity of subscribers who contributed funds to purchase subscriptions for students at Lake Hill Elementary School in Union City, Tenn., and thanks those who contributed to the “Tennesseans in Gray” gallery.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes notes from new and returning subscribes, late war Zouave uniforms and Henry Deeks’ business card.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A chart based on statistics from the U.S. Sanitary Commission shows that camp condition grades worsened during the first half of the Civil War.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
An interview with Diane Waggoner of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., curator of “The Eye of the Sun,” an exhibit celebrating the 180th birthday of photography.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “Why Photo Sleuths Do—and Don’t—Share With the Community,” Kurt shares information based on his interviews with collectors.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A half-plate daguerreotype from the Rich Jahn Collection is a portrait of an officer dressed in the 1851 regulation uniform. He holds a Model 1850 foot officer’s sword.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Edward Hill, a captain in the 16th Michigan Infantry, earned the Medal of Honor for leading a charge against Confederate forces during the Battle of Cold Harbor on June 1, 1864. Hill survived a serious gunshot wound in his hip and ended the war as the regiment’s lieutenant colonel.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
James Edgar Engle, a first sergeant in the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry, dragged gum blankets field with cartridges over a dangerous patch of battleground during the Battle of Bermuda Hundred on May 18, 1864. Engle’s efforts kept his comrades supplied with ammunition until he suffered wounds that required the amputation of his left arm. He received the Medal of Honor in 1896 and died the following year. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry (p. 18)
A scissor-wielding seamstress sewing a pair of pants made of heavy, dark material and lined. The resemble a pair of officer’s trousers.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In “CDVs That Never Existed,” Perry describes how a discolored carte de visite was trimmed and pasted into a period tintype mat. The results effectively hid the discolored area from potential buyers.

Brothers at Arms by Gary Waddey (pp. 22-24)
Tennessee’s Edward and Gabriel Fowlkes grew up together in Hickman County. Then the war came, and the went separate ways—one into the Union army and the other into the Confederate army. Their story is representative of how the war tore families apart.

Tennesseans in Gray (pp. 26-42)
A gallery of representative images and stories of soldiers includes 38 original portraits of men from Tennessee who enlisted in the Confederate army. They came from all walks of life—and some paid the ultimate price.

Fouled Anchors and Mamelukes: A survey of military portraits of officers and enlisted men in the Navy and Marines by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 44-53)
The first generations of men that joined the Navy and Marines after Congress passed the “Act to Provide a Naval Armament” in 1794 made history during a period of major change. A selection of their images and stories are included here.

Confederates in Paris by John O’Brien (pp. 54-55)
Parisians in the French capital glimpsed portraits of Southern military and political generals in 1864 thanks to a partnership between two photographers, Sterling C. McIntyre of the Confederate States and Jean Nicholas Truchelut of France. A total of 16 cartes de visite are pictured here.

Ock Tyner Leaves His Mark: Am Illinois photographer’s inscription provides unique historical context by Paul Russinoff (pp. 56-59)
Oscar Newton Tyner, known as “Ock” to his pals, worked as a photographer’s assistant in the gallery of Barr & Young of Vicksburg. One of the images Tyner printed and signed was Jesse Root Grant, father of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Turns out the photo was taken at a low point during the general’s military career.

Respect for the 14th by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 60-63)
George Alexander, an African American from Tennessee, and his comrades in the 14th U.S. Colored Infantry proved their valor in battle. They were commanded by Col. Thomas Jefferson Morgan, the grandson of a slaveowner and the son of an abolitionist. At the Battle of Decatur, Ala., in October 1864, the 14th fought with the same courage and determination as the well-known 54th Massachusetts Infantry—but the regiment’s story is forgotten.

The Benefactress: Reformer Ellen Cheney Johnson in war and peace by Elizabeth A. Topping (pp. 64-65)
Ellen Cheney Johnson, a leader in the New England Women’s Auxiliary Association, raised serious money on behalf of Union soldiers and sailors. Her work for military men and, after the war, on behalf of the poor, benefitted uncounted lives.

Michiganders Identified: A book in a local historical society reconnects names and faces of five soldiers by Martin N. Bertera (pp. 66-67)
In 1861, Mathew Brady made easy money photographing patriotic soldiers who arrived in Washington, D.C., to protect the capitol and the Union. The identities of the soldiers in many of the surviving images have been lost. Historian Marty N. Bertera was able to identify one group from the 4th Michigan Infantry.

The Man Behind “The Tree”: Photographer William T. Seeley of Elmira, N.Y. by Kyle M. Stetz (pp. 68-70)
The author traced a grouping of images with a distinctive backdrop—a large tree with a curved trunk and a cloud-like canopy of leaves—to William T. Seeley of Elmira, N.Y.

Entered According to Act of Congress: Copyright and photography in 19th Century America by Jason Lee Guthrie (pp. 72-75)
Civil War photo collectors are familiar with the legal language often found on images by Mathew Brady and other photographers: “Entered According to Act of Congress…” What exactly does this mean? Here’s the backstory.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 76-77)
Included are four portraits of Confederates and an outdoor image of five artfully-posed federal infantrymen.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Joe Normandy Collection pictures an early-war Ohio cavalryman with a crocheted and tasseled patriotic badge pinned to his chest.

Finding Aid: Autumn 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 4
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection pictures an officer wearing an 1851 regulation dress uniform and a woman who wears a cross around her neck.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor recalls to the late Michael J. McAfee, a longtime columnist for MI and a giant in the community of collectors.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes tributes to Mike McAfee, the backstory about the discovery of the daguerreotype of general and future president Franklin Pierce published in the last issue.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A look at the number of active duty army and navy personnel in the U.S. military between 1848 and 1861.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Behind the Rifle: Women Soldiers in Civil War Mississippi by Shelby Harriel (University Press of Mississippi), and The Maryland Brigade by Daniel Carroll Toomey (Toomey Press).
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “Evidence-Based Tips for Using Civil War Photo Sleuth,” Kurt discusses how two forms of automation, face recognition and filtering military records, eliminate potential portraits and narrow the possible choices to identify an individual.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection is a portrait of an infantryman dressed in the blue fatigue jacket from 1836 and a Model 1840 officer’s sword.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Samuel Cole Wright suffered numerous wounds and injuries during his four years in uniform with the 3rd and 29th Massachusetts infantries. During his service in the last-named regiment, he was wounded in both legs during the fighting at the Battle of Antietam’s Bloody Lane. He received the Medal of Honor for his courage.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
John William Fenton, a captain in the 132nd New York Infantry, was brought up on charges after he assaulted the owner of a saloon in New Bern, N.C., in late 1864. His actions resulted in a dishonorable discharge, which was overturned after his comrades petitioned to allow him to resign with honor. His post-war life took him to Washington, D.C., where he died in 1891 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Ron Field(p. 18)
The Haley brothers opened a store in New Market, N.H., on the eve of the Civil War. The building, pictured in this wartime stereo card, produced fatigue blouses and coats for several state regiments. A crowd is gathered in front of the store.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In his inaugural column, “Develop Your Sixth Sense for Fakes,” Perry tells the origin story of fakes, and discusses resources to help you combat fake images with knowledge.

Between Guadalupe Hidalgo and Secession: A survey of military portraits of West Pointers and Regulars on the western frontier by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 22-30)
This is the second in a multi-part series of pre-Civil War military portrait photography from the collection of Dr. William Schultz. Included are several men who went on to serve in the Union and Confederate armies—Confederate surgeon Robert Little Brodie, Capt. Martin Mullins of the 5th U.S. Infantry, and Union generals George Crook, Henry Prince and Henry Walton Wessels.

The Great American Civil War Pipe Gallery (pp. 31-38)
Tobacco was hailed as the soldier’s constant companion—when he could find it—by some and also as a wicked habit by others. In this gallery, a companion to last autumn’s cigar feature, we celebrate those who enjoyed the soldier’s and sailor’s solace in front of the camera.

Cultural Ambassador: On diplomacy’s front lines in Morocco and elsewhere with Albert L. Gihon, U.S. Navy by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 40-45)
Gihon, a career navy officer, hailed from a  family of adventurers that included his father, who participated in the California Gold Rush, and his brother, a prominent Philadelphia photographer. Gihon’s adventures took him to the coast of North Africa, where he and his shipmates on the St. Louis played a role in U.S.-Moroccan diplomacy.

Captured by the Lens in Bermuda: The Confederate Photography of S.W. Gault by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 46-50)
Tennessee’s Samuel Walter “S.W.” Gault traveled the U.S. as a photographer before the war, and when hostilities erupted between the North and South, he set out for Bermuda to avoid the conflict. But he could not escape the far reaches of the Civil War—and a rare opportunity to capture Confederates with his camera.

Corporal Austin Captures a Flag by Ron Field (p. 51)
Albert Austin and his comrades in the 8th Connecticut Infantry had their baptism under fire at the Battle of New Bern, N.C., on March 14, 1862. On that day, Austin picked up a war trophy. Here, we bring together the relic and his portrait—and tell Austin’s story.

Nurse Pomroy: Comforter-in-Chief to the Lincoln Family by Chris Foard, MSN, RN (pp. 52-57)
Rebecca Pomroy came to Washington to take care of wounded and sick soldiers. Much to her surprise, she was called to care for the Lincoln family—a role that she enjoyed, but also one that challenged her because it kept her from the soldier boys she pledged to serve.

Filler Cartes de Visite: A fresh look at art, humor and satire by James S. Brust (pp. 58-65)
In recent times, cartes de visite of art, celebrities, scenes and other non-personal portraits tucked into albums have been labeled as “fillers.” The term implies that they were less desirable afterthoughts. The opposite is true. We tell you why.

Hard Drinking Colonels: A tableau of two commanders of the 69th Ohio Infantry by David B. Holcomb (pp. 66-67)
A tintype of four soldiers provides an entry point into the early and troubled history of the 69th Ohio Infantry, which involved two colonels with alcohol problems.

The Little Sack of Flour That Won the West by Jeremy Rowe (pp. 68-70)
What began as a bet on a mayoral race in a rough and tumble Nevada mining town ended with mock auctions across the West for a sack of flour that raised huge amounts of money to support Union troops. The man who led the philanthropic effort, merchant Reuel Colt “R.C.” Gridley, was an unlikely fundraiser.

The Entertainer: Long before Bob Hope entertained the troops, there was Barney Williams by Kraig McNutt (pp. 71-74)
The popular Irish singer and stage star, along with his wife, Maria, made a fortune and achieved celebrity status before the Civil War. After hostilities began, Barney brought much needed cheer to Union soldiers. President Abraham Lincoln was a fan—and John Wilkes Booth was not.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
Included is a portrait of the brothers Henry and William King, enlisted men in the 52nd Pennsylvania Infantry, a Union infantryman with an Austrian Lorenz rifle musket, and two casually-dressed federals pictured just days before their Suffolk, Va., garrison came under siege by Confederates.

The Last Shot (p. 80)Two cartes de visite from the Karl Sundstrom Collection picture Union officers, each with a pencil inscription that accuses one of gambling and the other of cowardice.

Gettysburg Gathering: Celebrating the Collecting Community

Collectors, dealers and other members of the Civil War collecting community third met for the Gettysburg Gathering on Friday night, June 28, 2019. The group met at historic Grand Army of the Republic Hall in downtown Gettysburg, Pa. The evening began with a buffet barbecue dinner catered by Biggerstaff’s and continued with welcome remarks by co-hosts Ron Coddington of Military Images magazine and Doug York of Civil War Faces and Civil War Faces Market Place. The two announced the formation of a new organization, the Civil War Photo Collectors Society. The main attraction of the night—four speakers who presented on a variety of Civil War photo-related topics.

Gary McQuarrie, Doug York, Rick Brown, Ron Coddington, Chuck Joyce and Dr. Kurt Luther.

The program:

Chuck Joyce.

The Sacrifice of Seven: Images and Stories of Union Casualties at Gettysburg
By Chuck Joyce, Senior Editor, Military Images
About a dozen years ago, I began to focus my collection on images and artifacts of men and boys who fell at Gettysburg—drawn, as countless others before me, to the special nature of this hallowed ground. In this talk, I share the stories of seven federal soldiers whose lives were lost or forever altered in the fighting that took place here, paying particular attention to  role that pension records and online sources, the network of fellow collectors, and just plain luck has played in helping to allow me to learn and tell the tale of their sacrifice.

Dr. Kurt Luther.

Civil War Photo Sleuthing: Past, Present, and Future
By Dr. Kurt Luther, Civil War Photo Sleuth
People have struggled to identify unknown soldiers and sailors in Civil War photos since even before the war ended. In this talk, I trace the 150-year history of photo sleuthing, showing how the passage of time has magnified some challenges, but also unlocked exciting new possibilities. I show how technologies like social media, face recognition, and digital archives allow us to solve photo mysteries that have eluded families and researchers for a century and a half.

Gary McQuarrie.

George Holmes Bixby, MD: Photographer on the Western Rivers
By Gary McQuarrie, Managing Editor, Civil War Navy—The Magazine 
Documentary evidence is reviewed that Dr. Bixby, the Chief Medical Officer on the USS Red Rover hospital ship, photographed many iconic gunboats and vessels of the Mississippi Squadron during his service in the theater and deserves to be recognized for his photographs and as one of a small group of physician photographers during the war.

Rick Brown.

Through a Collector’s Eye
By Rick Brown, Senior Editor, Military Images
I review a sampling of photographs from my collection with an eye to artistry, appreciation, and history. I also share stories about the community of collectors, and our role in preserving the wonderful images out there we’ve discovered and shared.

Finding Aid: Summer 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 3
(80 pages)

Purchase print issue ($12.75)
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection pictures a Mexican War era enlisted man.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor discusses reflects on the passing of pioneer photograph collector Henry Deeks.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes tributes to late collectors Henry Deeks and Jim Frasca, and a note about credited photos.
Download (free)

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of occupations in the 1860 U.S. Census reveals the various ways in which photographers identified themselves.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Our Brethren Are On the Field: Letters, Diaries and Remembrances From Those Who Fought and Campaigned For Chattanooga by Dick Ransom and Brad Quinlin (Mountain Arbor Press) is a book inspired by a World War II Act of Heroism.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “Second Opinion,” Kurt discusses a new enhancement to Civil War Photo Sleuth, called Second Opinion, which allows users to gather additional feedback about a specific aspect of a photograph.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Rick Brown Collection is a portrait of a prototypical militiaman on the eve of the Civil War.

The Honored Few (p. 12)
Hubert Anton Casimir Dilger, a captain in the 1st Ohio Light Artillery, fought a delaying action at the Battle of Chancellorsville for which the government recognized his actions with the Medal of Honor.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
James Downey, a private in the hard-fighting 2nd Ohio Cavalry, survived numerous operations during the war. His luck ran out on April 1, 1865, during the Battle of Five Forks. Wounded in action, he succumbed to his injuries in Washington, D.C., and was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry (p. 16)
Almost nothing is known about the life of Diven Glover, save one significant detail: She was an enslaved woman. Her photograph, as well as the man, who owned her, Capt. George Frederick Glover of the 43rdd Alabama Infantry, are pictured here.

From Vera Crux to Mexico City: A survey of Mexican War era portraits of West Pointers, Regulars and Volunteers by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 18-28)
Representative images include future President Franklin Pierce and career military men who went on to become generals during the Civil War, including the Union’s Richard Delafield, George H. Gordon, William A. Nichols, Charles F. Smith, George H. Thomas, and Confederates Dabney H. Maury and John S. Williams.

Glinting Cutlasses and Flashing Revolvers: Ensign Abner Stover’s Civil War by Ronald S. Coddington, featuring images and artifacts from the Herman Kinder Collection (pp. 30-36)
Ensign Abner Stover’s navy service began on the Union blockade off the coast of Georgia aboard the gunboat Water Witch. It ended in a trip to a prison camp after a night attack by Confederate forces ended in the capture of the vessel. He told the story of his capture and imprisonment in a previously unknown diary.

A Tale of Two Steamers by Ron Field (pp. 38-40)
A pair of spectacularly tinted sixth-plate tintypes picture an Eads-class gunboat and other vessels. Two of the steamers, the Edward Walsh and the Hamilton Belle, are identified. Senior Editor Ron Field examines their service along the Mississippi River, and recognizes that little scholarship has been written about the contribution of these workhorses to the war effort.

Cadet to Boy Colonel: The life and service of North Carolina’s Henry King Burgwyn, Jr. by Dave Batalo and Rusty Hicks with Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 42-46)
Henry King Burgwyn, Jr., of the 26th North Carolina Infantry left Virginia Military Institute after the war began and rose in rank to become colonel of the 26th North Carolina Infantry. He led his men into action on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg and suffered a mortal wound in the thick of the action against Wisconsin troops of the Iron Brigade. Burgwyn’s story is illustrated with three likenesses of him, two photographs from his pre-war days at VMI and a portrait painted in 1904.

President Lincoln’s Bodyguard for a Day: Sgt. H. Paxton Bigham’s Gettysburg experience by Paul Russinoff (pp. 48-51)
Hugh Paxton Bigham has a unique connection to the Battle of Gettysburg. A local farmer from who grew up close to town, he participated in some of the earliest action during the days leading up to the engagement. Months after the fight, he served as personal bodyguard to Abraham Lincoln during his historic Gettysburg in November 1863 to dedicate the Soldier’s Cemetery.

Dwelling in Peace in the Land of the Spirits: Pvt. Admiral Coon’s portraits reveal a family’s pain and sorrow by Paul D. Mehney and Charles Joyce (pp. 52-56)
Portraits of Pvt. Admiral T. Coon of the 137th New York Infantry with his sister and nephew speak to the separation that affected hundreds of thousands of families in the North and South. In Coon’s case, a wound suffered at Gettysburg proved mortal—and deprived his sister of a brother and a nephew of an uncle.

Profiles of Union Soldiers in the Thick of the Fight for Petersburg by Scott Valentine (pp. 58-61)
A collection of five portraits of infantrymen from the author’s collection, each accompanied by narrative of the subject’s experience during the Petersburg Campaign, highlight the challenges of the brutal operations. They include George C. Case of the 57th New York, Frank H. Kempton of the 58th Massachusetts, Arthur V. Coan of the 146th New York, Samuel S. Foss of the 8th Connecticut and John M. Gilfillan of the 39th New York.

PIPs (Photos in photos) from the Doug York Collection (pp. 62-65)
Portrait photographs of individuals posed with a photograph of someone else are uncommon. Yet they were made throughout the 19th century. We offer a selection of representative images from the collection of Doug York.

Pre-Imposition Tax Stamps by Scott Vezeau (pp. 66)
It is well-known to collectors that the federal government taxed photographs to pay for the Civil War. It is a mistake, however, to conclude that tax-stamped images do not exist beyond the official date parameters. The author makes his case with four cartes de visite.

Optics: Military men with field glasses and telescopes (pp. 67-73)
Field glasses and telescopes loomed large in the Civil War. Used by soldiers and sailors to gain an edge over their enemies, it comes as no surprise that numerous references to this essential accouterment appear in period writings—and in photographs.

Educator, Photographist and Prisoner of War: David Heckendorn’s journey as an approved Army of the Potomac photographer by Sidney Dreese, with images from Diane Mazze (pp. 74-75)
Had the war never happened, David Heckendorn might have had a long career in the school system of Union County, Pa. But it did, and Heckendorn, an amateur daguerreotypist, became an approved photographer for the Army of the Potomac. He was captured in Virginia and spent three months in Richmond. He fell ill after his return home and died before the end of the war.

How Much Could Camp Photographers Earn In a Day? A Lot. (p. 76)
A soldier in the 63rd Indiana Infantry wrote a letter to his father chock full of financial details and practical information about photographers in the vicinity of their camp near Bull’s Gap, Tenn., in the spring of 1864. The father no doubt appreciated the intelligence, for he was a practicing photographer. Historian Kraig McNutt researched the letter from the Indiana State Manuscripts Collections.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 74-79)
Union and Confederate images include Maj. William McIntosh Arnold of the 6th Georgia Infantry, a non-commissioned Union officer standing in front of an elaborate back drop, a soldier dressed in a red uniform jacket, 1st Lt. Mims Walker of 4th Alabama Infantry and the staff of Brig. Gen. Evander Law, James Madison Crozer of the Confederate 6th Kentucky Cavalry, and more.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Michael J. McAfee Collection has portraits pasted to both sides—on one, an image of a woman with her husband’s sword, the Stars and Stripes and the family dog, and on the other side a vignette of the same dog.

The Benefits of Advertising in MI, Explained in Our New Media Kit

Military Images has spent the last five years rethinking advertising. We’ve evolved from offering a single set of print magazine options to a new approach that embraces print, digital and social media.

The plan is simple: We offer advertisers access to our quarterly magazine in print and online, our web site, our Facebook page and Military Images Live, our streaming video program. You can pick and choose from four different packages, all reasonably priced. No matter which plan you choose, your company name will marketed to our engaged audience with an active interest in American Civil War photography and history. It includes an vibrant community of collectors and dealers in historic military photography and other artifacts, researchers and genealogists, re-enactors and living historians, authors and historians, museums, libraries, historical societies, and other public and private institutions. Included in this last group are more than 40 Civil War-related national historical sites and military parks and museums.

Get familiar with our Media Kit!

Need a Military Images Fix Between Issues? Check Out Our Live Video Stream.

By Ron Coddington

When I came into possession of MI in 2013, one of my first orders of business was to establish a presence on social media. Regular posts include sharing images, stories, news and information gleaned from a variety of sources. At some point along the way, I experimented with video posts on Facebook, as part of an effort to try different methods of spreading the word. Metrics revealed increased engagement with our audience.

Encouraged, I tried a related experiment last summer: Facebook Live, which streams video instantly. The idea is simple. Every second Monday at 9 p.m. ET, I broadcast Military Images Live from my laptop, sharing items of interest that have landed on my office desk or computer desktop. I also answer questions posed by subscribers and Facebook followers, preview projects in progress for future issues, and promote our great advertising partners. Think of it as a way to get your MI fix between issues!

Follow us on Facebook for updates on future shows, and visit our show archive on YouTube.

Finding Aid: Spring 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 2
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A ninth-plate ruby ambrotype from the Kevin Canberg Collection pictures a federal enlisted man holding a photograph of another soldier.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
Download (free)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor discusses two new ventures, Military Images Live, a bi-monthly video broadcast on Facebook, and the first-ever Civil War Faces Show and Sale, a joint venture with Doug York, Editor of Civil War Faces.
Download (free)

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes memorial for late collector John Sickles, an alternative view of an Antebellum Warrior and the discovery of a wooden bowl in the Iowa Historical Museum.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of 5 less discussed factors that negatively impacted prisoners of war, based on scholarship by David Keller, author of The Story of Camp Douglas, Chicago’s Forgotten Civil War Prison.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
Death, Disease and Life at War: The Civil War Letters of Surgeon James D. Benton, 111th and 98th New York Infantry Regiments, 1862-1865 (Savas Beatie) by Christopher E. Loperfido notes the refreshing honesty revealed by the Union officer in his wartime letters.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “Civil War Photo Sleuth: An Update,” Kurt shares statistics about user-created accounts, adding photos, identifying photos, plus information about the current status and future plans for the popular application.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Thomas Harris Collection is a portrait of a naval 1st assistant engineer dressed in an 1852 regulation uniform.

The Honored Few (p. 12)
Aaron Steven Lanfare, a first lieutenant in the 1st Connecticut Cavalry, captured the flag of the 11th Florida Infantry during the Battle of Sailor’s Creek in April 1865. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
Georgiana Willets took a break from her duties as a teacher of freedmen in Washington, D.C., to help soldiers suffering wounds and sickness during the 1864 Overland Campaign. She survived the war and married a veteran, James M. Stradling of the 1st New Jersey Cavalry. They are buried side-by-side in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Jeff Giambrone (p. 16)
After the fall of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, the Union army assumed the difficult role of occupier. An uneasy peace followed, and in one of the many episodes of friction between soldiers and townspeople, Miss Emma Kline was arrested on suspicion of smuggling. She’s pictured here standing between two guards from the 5th Iowa Infantry.

A Million Hells of Screaming Flame: Portraits of Blue and Gray at Shiloh (pp. 18-28)
We remember one of the most significant battles of the war and the Western Theater through representative portraits and stories of more than two dozen soldiers who were killed, wounded and captured, and others, during the chaos and confusion that reigned in and about Pittsburgh Landing during two days in April 1862. Stan Hutson of the National Park Service played an important role in bringing this stories to light.

Infernal Gates: Lt. Borger and the Hornet’s Nest Brigade at Shiloh by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 30-33)
The fighting at the Hornet’s Nest is remembered for the grit of Union troops who defended this sector of the battlefield against Confederate attackers. A brigade of Iowa infantry played a critical role in its defense. One of the regiments, the 12th Iowa, found itself in the center of the fury. The story of one of these Iowans, 2nd Lt. John Herman Borger, a German immigrant and former Marine, is representative of the Union soldier experience.

Reunion and Reconciliation at the Point: Lookout Mountain and the Linn brothers after the war by Dr. Anthony Hodges (pp. 35-41)
In our third and final installment tracing the history of Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga, Tenn., before, during and after the Civil War, Dr. Anthony Hodges explores the area and its development as a hotspot for Union and Confederate veteran reunions, the center of the battlefield preservation movement, and a tourist attraction documented in photographs by Robert M. and James B. Linn.

Requiescat in Pace: Memorial photographs of the Civil War by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 42-50)
A newspaper ad for Mathew Brady’s New York City gallery warned readers, “Never delay the important business of getting your Portrait; you cannot tell how soon it may be too late.” The author suggests these words can be loosely attributed to the creation of the memorial photograph, which is rooted in the European custom of memorial cards. A history of these images includes examples of three types: Formal Cards, Informal Cards and Mourning Wreaths. Also included is a section about unverified cards.

Soldier Photographs, Reunited by Daniel J. Binder (pp. 52-54)
Tintypes and ambrotypes were extremely popular during the Civil War. But they did have one drawback—they could not be easily and inexpensively reproduced. Soldiers fond of the format sat for more than one portrait during a sitting. Many of these pairs of images were separated over time. The author brings three of these pairs together, and shares his insights.

Undivided by Robert Lee Blankenship, Jr. (p. 55)
A poem.

Hidden in Plain Sight: Is Jane Perkins pictured in this iconic Civil War image of Confederate prisoners of war? by Shelby Harriel and Mark Hidlebaugh (pp. 56-58)
An iconic Mathew Brady photograph of Confederate prisoners of war at White House Landing in Virginia is a study in contrasts. One of them is the presence of what appears to be a woman who may be a known female soldier, Jane A. Perkins. The authors make a compelling case that the individual is Perkins by placing the scene in context to events in 1864 and her documented military service, as well as a comparison of the individual pictured to known descriptions.

A New Look at Old Abe’s Color Guard: Researchers combine classic and cutting-edge techniques to reexamine the identities of soldiers in an iconic image by Tyler Phillips, Kenneth E. Byrd and Xukai Zou (pp. 60-64)
Three researchers at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis use classic and cutting edge techniques to reexamine the identities of soldiers pictured in a well-known photo of members of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry with their live eagle mascot, Old Abe. The results of the study confirm the identities of some of the eight men—and raise questions about the others.

Red-Whiskered Artillery Genius: New York’s Capt. Jacob Roemer by Mike Fitzpatrick (pp. 65-69)
Jacob Roemer’s military exploits are largely forgotten. In his four years as captain of the 2nd New York Light Artillery, the German immigrant survived numerous wounds and established a reputation as something of a tactical genius. His knack for improvisation, quick thinking and bold action in the face of adversity belied his lack of a formal military education.

Legacy Fulfilled: One Virginian’s Journey from West Point to Confederate artillery leader by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 70-73)
Virginia’s William Rice Jones left his beloved West Point as a matter of honor and principle after his home state seceded and cast his lot with the Confederate army. The young man eventually rose to become an artillery chief in Texas, and returned to the Lone Star State to make a new life for himself after the end of hostilities.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 74-79)
Union and Confederate images include a young men with a fawn outside a photographer’s studio tent, Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cousin, Capt. Albartus Forrest of the 31st Tennessee Infantry, and a post mortem of Pvt. Alonzo “Lon” Clark of the 31st Maine Infantry, who died of disease only six weeks after he enlisted.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A quarter-plate tintype from the Ronald S. Coddington Collection is a portrait of Union officer thumbing his nose at the camera.