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Military Images

Finding Aid: Autumn 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 4
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Kevin Canberg Collection pictures a Union veteran seated on a tree trunk with canteen in hand.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Introducing The Citizenry,” the editor provides background on a new department to recognize the generation who supported soldiers and sailors in blue and gray through original portrait photographs and stories.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes an early birthday gift for the state of Maine, an emotional reunion with a family photo, a newly discovered photo of George L. Fisher, the durable man of Hagerstown, Md., and a commentary on probably props.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of more than 25,000 photograph citations on Newspapers.com reveals that the Civil War is a time of transition for photographic formats. Ambrotypes dominated in 1861. Four years later, the carte de visite ruled.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
The Soldiers of Fort Mackinac: An Illustrated History (Michigan State University Press) by Phil Porter documents the many soldiers who passed through the fort, including future Union and Confederate generals, during its active operations from 1780 to 1895.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “A New Era in Photo Sleuthing Begins,” Kurt reviews the history of Civil War Photo Sleuth from its soft launch in Gettysburg in 2017 to the official launch inside the Innovation Hub at the National Archives on Aug. 1, 2018. Kurt also discusses early feedback and next steps to fulfill its mission “to recover the names and stories behind every surviving Civil War-era portrait.”

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Paul Reeder Collection is a portrait believed to be a member of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 12)
Capt. Adam Kramer and 86 of his troopers in the 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry launched a successful raid in North Carolina during the closing days of the war. Born and educated in Germany, he started his military service before the war with the 2nd U.S. Dragoons and continued on after the war with the 6th U.S. Cavalry.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Robert Frank Shipley, a sergeant in the 140th New York Infantry, captured the flag of the 9th Virginia Infantry during the Battle of Five Forks—one of 17 soldiers to receive the honor for this engagement. How he came to capture the flag and what happened to the banner after the war are reported here.

The Citizenry (p. 16)
The inaugural department dedicated to images of the Civil War generation is a portrait of Kentuckians Elizabeth Taylor Nelson and John Rowzee Green.

Antietam Album with an introduction by John Banks (pp. 18-23)
A survey of 10 portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers who became casualties in the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War. Two Confederate and eight Union soldiers are profiled.

Blue & Gray Badges of Courage: Representative images from the Kevin Canberg Collection (pp. 24-34)
Kevin Canberg’s journey as a collector began with an unusual Father’s Day gift for his dad—a vintage fireman’s badge from Brooklyn, N.Y. Since then, Canberg has amassed an impressive collection of ambrotypes and tintypes of Union and Confederate soldiers.

The Linns of Lookout: The enterprising brothers behind a legendary photograph gallery by Dr. Anthony Hodges, with images from the author’s collection (pp. 36-43)
In this first installment of a three-part series, we meet two brothers who documented the scene of one of the great moments in Civil War history—the Nov. 24, 1863, Battle of Lookout Mountain during the Chattanooga Campaign. Images include various views of the area around Lookout Mountain, the gallery and several of the best known individual and group portraits.

Civil War Daguerreotypes: Last of photography’s celebrated first format by Ronald S. Coddington with daguerreotypes from the Mike Medhurst Collection (pp. 44-46)
By the start of the war, the daguerreotype’s reign was at an end as cheaper formats chipped away at its once-dominant market position. Two surviving examples of Civil War soldiers remind us of the end of one era and the beginning of another.

Taxing the Sun: The revolution to repeal and replace the stamp act on photos by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 47-50)
The federal government needed to pay for an expensive war and looked to tax goods and services to pay for it. Photographs were among the items singled out. We explore the events that led to the tax, and how Mathew Brady and other leading photographers killed it.

Overworked, Undermanned and Indispensable: Hospital stewards in the Civil War by William T. Campbell, Ed.D, RN (pp. 52-56)
Hospital stewards were pharmacists and so much more on staffs of army hospitals. The author examine their role, responsibilities, selection process and uniforms.

Rescuing Joe Parsons: A researcher’s unexpected journey to connect a face to a mythic tale by Alison Renner (pp. 57-60)
Newspapers across the Union carried the story of two soldiers who lay wounded on the battlefield of Antietam, a blinded Yankee and a rebel unable to walk, who joined forces to make a daring escape. The Union soldier, Pvt. Joseph Parsons of the 2nd Maryland Infantry, lived the rest of his days in darkness and his story faded from American history—until the author and her husband found his portrait in a local antique shop.

Fateful Final Lesson: A schoolteacher-soldier’s journey to Andersonville by Earvin Lee Joyner, Jr. (pp. 62-65)
John William Partridge, a New England educator, started his Civil War military service with the 25th Massachusetts Infantry and he later joined the Signal Corps. Captured during a Confederate raid in New Bern, N.C., his journey ended at Andersonville Prison.

The Defier and other Union archetypes by a master lensman by Jim Frasca (pp. 66-67)
A uniquely, thoughtfully posed selection of 7 Civil War cartes de visite by Frank Rowell of Providence, R.I., a refreshingly innovative photographer whose contributions to the art have been largely forgotten.

The Great American Civil War Cigar Gallery (pp. 69-76)
Tobacco was hailed as the soldier’s constant companion—when he could find it—by some and also as a wicked habit by others. In this gallery, we celebrate those who enjoyed a good smoke in front of the camera.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
“Sergeants in Blue” features eight images of Union men who wore the three-striped chevrons on their sleeves.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Mike Medhurst Collection is a portrait of Granville Moody, the “Famous Fighting Methodist Preacher” who served as colonel of the 74th Ohio Infantry and ended the war as a brevet brigadier general. Moody inscribed the back of the image with a record of marriage vows he administered to John W. Widney and Mary A. Fitzwater Brown of Orange, Ohio.

Finding Aid: Summer 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 3
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
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Inside

Cover image
A ninth-plate tintype from the Doug York Collection pictures a young enlisted soldier with a knife and Colt Root Revolver.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Our Digital Preservation Effort,” the editor announces a deal with the non-profit digital library Journal Storage (JSTOR) to digitize and make searchable the entire run of Military Images.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for personal soldier stories, feedback on the Father of the American Cavalry, comments on a soldier identified as a prototypical Confederate, and clarity of terms and titles used in our Nathan Bedford Forrest gallery.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of the residences reported by 1,275 men of color upon their enrollment in the 54th Massachusetts Infantry.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
The War Outside My Window: The Civil War Diary of LeRoy Wiley Gresham (Savas Beatie) edited by Janet Elizabeth Croon is the writings of an invalid Georgia boy who observed the rise and fall of the Confederate nation.
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Antebellum Warriors (p. 8)
A sixth-plate ruby ambrotype by from the Ron Field Collection is a portrait of Michael G. Stapleton, an Irish-born soldier who served in the 65th New York State Militia. He went on to serve in the Civil War with the 164th New York Infantry but did not live to see the end of hostilities.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 10)
Carlos Alvarez de le Mesa, a native of Spain who served an officer in the 39th New York Infantry, also known as the Garibaldi Guard, was wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg. The bullet that struck his foot ended his active duty and he spent the rest of the war in the Veteran Reserve Corps. His grandson, Terry de la Mesa Allen, became a noted World War II general with the nom de guerre “Terrible Terry.”

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 12-13)
In “Non-Traditional Research Tools—and Serendipity,” Kurt explains how he identified a group of officers pictured in a carte de visite that was partially inscribed on the back of the mount. Period newspapers, letters and other sources helped him out names to all four faces.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (p. 14)
In “Men of the Military Telegraph Service,” McAfee profiles this agency run by the Quartermaster Department. The text is illustrated with portraits of service members Samuel M. Brown, David Strouse, David Homer Bates, Richard O’Brien, Homer W. Gilbert and C.A. Homan.

Gettysburg Album: Portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers in the Gettysburg Campaign (pp. 16-22)
A total of 13 images, 5 Confederate and 8 Union, of soldiers who participated parts of the three-day battle and/or related engagements following the rebel retreat. They include John Lewis Ells of the 3rd Georgia Infantry, Kirkbride Taylor of the 8th Virginia Infantry, Augustine Leftwich Jr. of Shoemaker’s Battery, Virginia Horse Artillery, Ludwig Kohn of the 26th Wisconsin Infantry and more.

“You Were Making History”: Faces of Maine men who fought at Gettysburg by Tom Huntington (pp. 24-29)
In this adaptation from his new book, Maine Roads to Gettysburg (Stackpole Books, 2018), the author provides an overview of the Pine State’s contribution to the Civil War through the varied experiences of its military volunteers. Profiles include Freeman McGilvery, Edwin B. Dow, Moses B. Lakeman, Abner Small, George Bisbee, Charles Mattocks, Holman Melcher, Ellis Spear and Samuel Keene. Each is illustrated with a portrait courtesy of the Maine Historical Society.

Reluctant Hero: Otis C. Billings and Cowan’s 1st New York Independent Battery at Gettysburg by Charles Joyce (pp. 30-34)
Billings, a young, battle-hardened soldier with a distinguished record, was unusually reluctant to fight on the third day at Gettysburg. He and his artillery battery, commanded by Capt. Andrew Cowan, went on to fight near The Copse of Trees during Pickett’s Charge. There the fate of Billings and the rest of Cowan’s gunners were decided.

Fallout from the Johnston Reconnaissance: A late-war letter by Robert E. Lee sheds light on an enduring Gettysburg controversy by Ronald S. Coddington with Dave Batalo (pp. 36-37)
In late January 1865, Lt. Col. Samuel Richards Johnston became a father after his wife gave birth to a baby boy. Johnston decided to name his son after the general on whose staff he served—Robert E. Lee. A reply letter from Lee thanking Johnston for the honor suggest the two men were on cordial terms. This suggests Lee harbored no ill will towards Johnston for a July 2, 1863, reconnaissance on Little Round Top that remains a hot topic for historians and other battle enthusiasts.

Silver for The Superb: Hometown tribute to a national hero by Matt Hagans (pp. 38-39)
The wounding of Winfield Scott Hancock during Pickett’s Charge is one of the most notable moments of the Battle of Gettysburg. His actions in helping to repulse the Confederate assault won him new admirers throughout the Union, especially in his hometown of Norristown, Pa. His neighbors and friends paid tribute to Hancock with a unique silver service.

Civil War Images; Fallen Soldiers by Robert Lee Blankenship  (p. 40)
A poem explores the connection between Civil War soldier photographs and the individuals who collect them.

Faces in Cases: Representative images from the Bryan Watson collection (pp. 42-51)
Wyoming’s Bryan Watson’s passion for collecting might be summed up in a fortune cookie he once received: “Where your treasure is there will your heart will be also.” A profile of Watson is accompanied by a selection of 25 of his finest portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers.

Old Pap: The neglected legacy of one of the Union’s most loyal brigadiers by Ben Myers (pp. 52-58)
Alpheus Starkey Williams commanded troops at many of the Civil War’s biggest battles and campaigns, including Gettysburg, Atlanta and the March to the Sea. His military record was exemplary. And yet history has forgotten him. The author examines Williams the soldier and the man, and reveals how his humble ways likely contributed to his lack of notoriety.

Fighting for Freedom: Portraits of soldiers and other Civil War participants (pp. 59-65)
No single group experienced such a dramatic change in fortunes during the Civil War than men of color. From an enslaved race to freedmen to post-war struggles, they served as soldiers, servants and laborers. A sampling of 13 portraits, some never before published, are featured here.

Memento of a Senseless Death: The portrait of a surgeon recalls a wartime murder by Daniel R. Glenn (pp. 66-68)
John Gore Johnson, a Massachusetts physician who served as a contract surgeon in Union-occupied North Carolina, treated an African American man shot and mortally wounded by a federal soldier. A court-martial convened in New Bern to try the soldier, who was charged with murder. Johnson testified, and posed for his portrait soon afterwards. A note tucked inside the image case suggests that the trial was one that the doctor wanted to remember.

A Navy Lieutenant Faces Divided Loyalties in His Final Discharge of Duty by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 70-73)
Virginia-born career navy officer Otway Henry Berryman found himself in command of a vessel in Florida as the Union broke apart and was consumed by war. In the face of divided loyalties, Berryman managed to navigate uncharted political and military waters as tensions mounted in Pensacola Bay. He might have gone on to become one of the Union’s best-known naval commanders—then fate intervened.

The Honored Few (pp. 74-75)
Charles Henry Tompkins, a West Point dropout whose father was a career army officer, was perhaps an unlikely choice for a war hero. On June 1, 1861, on a scouting mission just outside Washington, D.C., he encountered Confederate troops. What followed was an encounter that became known as the Battle of Fairfax Court House. His aggressive actions were recognized with the Medal of Honor in 1893.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 76-77)
“Confederate Portraits” features three images of unidentified soldiers, including a rare wartime daguerreotype.

Sutler’s Row (p. 79)

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Michael J. McAfee Collection is a portrait of a trio of young ladies who have surrounded their captive, a Union first sergeant.

Our Digital Preservation Effort

The toughest part of my job may surprise you—fielding specific search requests. Want to know how many times the 54th Massachusetts Infantry is mentioned in all of our issues? How about the 6th Virginia Cavalry? I couldn’t tell you without a huge investment in time.

The root of the problem is that there has been no easy way to search our 200-plus issues archive. My predecessors, to their credit, anticipated the need, and created two indexes: one for stories and another for regiments. But they were not maintained and are now out of date. A substantial effort is required to bring them to current times. And they’re not digital native.

I’ve been concerned about how to make 40 years of content available since becoming editor.

Our first effort to address the problem was to create finding aids. We began cataloging in November 2015 and completed the work last December. These aids can now be browsed by volume by volume and issue number in the Back Issues section of our site. Though these finding aids do not satisfy larger search needs, they do document the contents of each issue.

What we really needed was a fully searchable digitized collection. I investigated a few options early on in my tenure, but could not find a way forward.

Everything changed on Sept. 26, 2016, with an email from Robert Sedgwick, a Senior Editor at the non-profit digital library Journal Storage, or JSTOR. “I write today to invite your publication, Military Images, to join our archive,” Sedgwick stated. He added, “Participation in the archive is by invitation, and Military Images was selected after a careful review of its publication history, as well as recommendations from academic librarians and scholars.”

I accepted the offer and soon the archive of printed magazines was in the hands of JSTOR staff. They scanned and converted each page to optical character recognition, then made everything searchable on JSTOR.org. The work finished last month.

The JSTOR team has my eternal gratitude for preserving Military Images for all time.

Thanks to their efforts, Military Images can be searched by anyone. Modest fees apply to download stories and issues. So go forth and explore! Visit jstor.org/journal/militaryimages to begin searching. Before you do, I recommend our guide for how to get the most out of your JSTOR visit. It is available on militaryimages.com.

Oh, and the answers to those questions? The 54th Massachusetts appears 22 times, and the 6th Virginia Cavalry makes 14 appearances.

How to Make the Most of Your Military Images Search on JSTOR

JSTOR offers a powerful search tool to explore Military Images, and has a unique interface to guide you to the best possible results. There are two main ways to access our content:

  • Advanced Search: Using key terms and boolean operators to deliver relevant results, this is a great tool for in-depth fielded searches.
  • Browse: Organized by subject, title and publisher. If you are looking for a specific issue , this is a convenient way to access it.

Military Images recommends the Advanced Search to take full advantage of our full run of issues. Why? Because the JSTOR interface is designed to perform unique searches of value to collectors, historians, genealogists and other enthusiasts. Here’s how it works:

  1. Go to jstor.org and select “Advanced Search.” You don’t need to be logged in to search.
  2. On the search screen, enter key terms in the field boxes and the pull-down menus to connect the terms (and, or, not, near 5, near 10, near 25). You can add additional search boxes as needed. Scroll down to the “Journal of Book Title” field and type in Military Images. Fill in other boxes as desired.
  3. Select “Search.” A new page will load with your results.
  4. Select a search result to purchase a PDF of the story. To complete the purchase you will need to register for an account.

For further information, visit JSTOR’s collection of video tutorials.

Finding Aid: Spring 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 2
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF ($8.75)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Mike Medhurst Collection pictures Philip St. George Cooke, U.S. army, circa 1857.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “On Vignettes,” the editor discusses the importance of the human element and emphasizes the rich history of soldier stories that dates to the founding of the magazine.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for the last issue, the paper crisis in the Confederacy, photos of Gen. Samuel Cooper and the fate of Stonewall Jackson’s funeral boat.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
Data tracking the percent of U.S. Colored Troops as part of the Union army from September 1862 until April 1865 are visualized with a bar chart.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Howard Wert’s Gettysburg: A Collection of Relics from the Civil War Battle (Schiffer Publishing) by Bruce E. Mowday and G. Craig Caba explores the artifacts held by a family of pioneer collectors.
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Antebellum Warriors (p. 8)
A half-plate daguerreotype by John Plumbe Jr. from the National Portrait Gallery Collection pictures Col. James Duncan Graham, an 1817 graduate of the U.S. Military Academy who had a stellar military career as a surveyor of borders.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 10)
Sanford D. Bradbury started his military service with the 27th New York Cavalry and fought at the First Battle of Run. He survived his war experience and remained in the army, fighting Native American warriors in the West. He received the Medal of Honor for his courage in an 1860 skirmish against Apache warriors at Hell Canyon, Ariz.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 12-13)
In “Reverse Engineering an Image Macro,” Kurt explains how he solved an internet mystery involving a Civil War photo meme and another mystery from Civil War history.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Horatio Collins King, a well-connected young New York attorney, served most of the Civil War behind the scenes as a quartermaster. During the closing days of the war, near Five Forks, Va., he volunteered to be an aide to Gen. Thomas Devin and helped drive back advancing Confederates. For this he received the Medal of Honor in 1897.

The Borderer: The antebellum origins of the Father of the American Cavalry by Mike Medhurst (pp. 16-20)
Though Philip St. George Cooke’s Civil War career was marred by his less than stellar performance during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, his pre-war career was celebrated. His service in the West, his many experiences in uniform and his authorship of a popular cavalry manual made him an early American military icon.

Maelstrom in The Wilderness: The deadliest day in Vermont history by John Gibson (pp. 23-33)
Without question, Union losses during the Battle of the Wilderness in the spring of 1864 were on a massive scale. The volunteers of Vermont suffered heavy casualties as the Army of the Potomac ground its way towards eventual victory over the Army of Northern Virginia. Here, we look at Vermont’s story through the portraits and stories of those who became casualties in the brutal fight.

Carbines, Colts & Confederates (pp. 34-43)
Charles Darden started collecting carbines almost a half-century ago, but all that changed in 2009 when he purchased a photograph of a Missouri cavalryman. Since then, Civil War images have become an important part of his identity as a collector. Representative images from his collection are published here.

Philanthropic Photos: Fundraising during and after the Civil War by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 44-56)
The Civil War was a time of many firsts, and one of them is the explosion in sales of photographs for charitable purposes. From massive fairs in major cities to raise money for the leading philanthropic organization of the day to individual soldiers maimed by amputation and unable to work, we take a look at different uses.

The Norman Brothers Meet Up in New Orleans: Photo sleuthing a Civil War journey by Ron Field (pp. 58-60)
A carte de visite of the Norman brothers, William and John, taken while they were in New Orleans is a window into the lives of two young men who took very different paths to preserve the Union.

Ogle’s Ruination: How alcohol ended a West Pointer’s promising military career by William Gorenfeld  (pp. 62-65)
Alcohol ended many a promising soldier’s career. Such was the case for Charles Henry Ogle, a West Pointer who started his military service as a dragoon in antebellum times and ended it in a room in Harrisburg, Pa., in 1863.

Forrest Family Faces: Rare images from the collections of Matt Hagans and Steve and Mike Romano (pp. 66-69)
Images of the wily Confederate cavalry mastermind and some of his family are published here, many for the first time.

Elmer Ellsworth, Haute Couturier? A previously unknown portrait of the Union martyr offers insight into his design method by Ronald S. Coddington with Michael J. McAfee and Ron Field (pp. 70-71)
A previously unknown antebellum portrait of Elmer E. Ellsworth dressed in an elaborate uniform is at the heart of a theory about his design methods. The visionary brainchild behind the U.S. Zouave Cadets had a passion for uniforms and was influenced by European styles.

The Past is Made Present: A reflection on photography by Naomi Subotnick with images from the Liljenquist Family Collection at the Library of Congress (pp. 72-73)
In this essay, Naomi shares her impressions after spending a summer internship working with photos of men who served in the War of 1812, Civil War and World War I.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (pp. 74-75)
In “The Battle Against Uniform Uniforms” McAfee explores the disparate uniforms of the 10th New York State Militia, also known as the 177th New York Infantry. The story is illustrated with images from the author’s collection that picture the variety of styles.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 76-77)
“Confederate Men of War” features five images of unidentified soldiers.

Sutler’s Row (p. 79)

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A quarter-plate tintype from the Art O’Leary Collection is a portrait of Stephen W. Thompson of the 5th Michigan Cavalry, who sits with a loaf of bread. He sticks a knife into one end of it.

Finding Aid: Winter 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 1
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF ($8.75)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Doug York Collection pictures Virginia Ware with the Confederate First National flag.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
Download (free)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Our Initiative to Educate Future Historians,” the editor announces the results of the Young Historians campaign and introduces the idea of sponsoring subscriptions.
Download (free)

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for the last issue, a cover story party for the Rich Jahn family, the emergence of a Civil War image of Walter H. Thomas, Enfields and Springfields, and more.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
Ron Field’s Silent Witness: The Civil War Through Photography and Its Photographers (Osprey Publishing) captures the spirit of the men behind the camera.
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Antebellum Warriors (p. 8)
A sixth-plate ambrotype by Mathew B. Brady from the National Portrait Gallery Collection pictures George Henry Thomas about 1855, when he was an army major. Thomas would go on to serve as a Union major general during the Civil War and earn the nom de guerre “Rock of Chickamauga.” This image is part of a current National Portrait Gallery exhibit.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 10)
Rose Adéle Cutts, the crème de la crème of Washington society, married Sen. Stephen A. Douglas. After his untimely death in 1861, she went into an extended period of mourning. Her home, the Douglas Mansion, became a hospital for Union soldiers. She lived in an adjacent villa and visited soldiers regularly. After the war, she married an army officer, Robert Williams.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 12-14)
Kurt observes, “Facial recognition is a key consideration in photo sleuthing. Rarely definitive, face recognition is fundamentally hard, for both humans and computers.”

Confederate Mona Lisa by Doug York with Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 16-18)
Surviving documents and photographs tell the story of a forgotten Alabama belle, Virginia Frances Ware, and her connections to a prominent Vicksburg, Miss., family, famed Alabama raider Raphael Semmes, and a young naval officer connected to the highest levels of the Confederate government.

Red Blankets & Blue Blouses: Faces of Rhode Island’s First Responders, April-June 1861 (pp. 19-30)
A survey of 18 portraits of Rhode Islanders who were prompted to enlist after the bombardment of Fort Sumter. They became the 1st Rhode Island Infantry. Identified individuals include Ambrose E. Burnside, Augustus Woodbury, William L. Bowers, Moses Brown Jenkins, William Chace, Addison Hyde White, Joseph Pope Balch, Lewis Richmond, Joseph Story Pitman, William S. Smith, Jesse Comstock, James Henry Chappell, George Frank Low and Peter Simpson Jr.

Crystal Clear: Representative portraits from the Dan Binder Collection (pp. 31-41)
A longtime collector of non-dug, pre-1865 Civil War buttons, Dan Binder changed his focus to photography in 2010. Since then, he’s amassed more than 400 images, of which 27 examples are included here.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (p. 44)
In “Military Schoolboys Fostered ‘Virtuous Citizens,’” McAfee discusses the importance of military schools in American society, and notes that President Donald J. Trump attended one. Two cartes de visite of cadets illustrate the text.

Carried into Battle: Images that came under fire—and survived (pp. 45-53)
A rare grouping of images found on battlefields includes an ambrotype taken from the body of a dead Confederate at Port Hudson, La., a carte de visite of a Union soldier found by “W.A.S.” at The Wilderness, a tintype of a federal corporal discovered at Shiloh, an ambrotype of a civilian picked up by a noncommissioned officer at Shiloh, a carte de visite of a sister carried by her brother at Irish Bend, La., and a group of five cartes de visite pierced by a bullet at Petersburg.

At Franklin, “Killed Dead:” Life and loss of a Georgia lieutenant by Willis Treadwell with Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 54-57)
Among the men who perished in the crushing Confederate defeat at the Battle of Franklin was a Georgia husband and father of four, George Washington Whitecotton. He is buried in the McGavock Cemetery. His portrait and a photo of the watch returned to his family illustrates the text.

The Virtuous Knight of the Orphan Brigade: Kentucky’s Lafayette Hewitt by Brian Boeve with Rusty Hicks (pp. 58-61)
Known as Fayette to his family and comrades, Hewitt started the Civil War as an employee in the fledgling Confederate postal service. He left to join the army and served at first in a staff position. He eventually realized his goal of serving as a combat officer—and he became a distinguished fighter. His legacy includes important primary source records that detail the history of his beloved Orphan Brigade. His portrait illustrates the text.

Here Among the Chiefs: The Cherokee Nation’s Lewis Downing, in gray and blue by Scott Vezeau with Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 62-65)
The Civil War divided the Cherokee Nation as much as it did the North and South. One of the men who ultimately sided with the Union, Lewis Downing, started his military career as a Confederate chaplain. After President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, he had a change of heart—and uniform. A rare portrait of the man who would someday lead his people is inscribed on the back in Cherokee.

A Few Minutes and a Street Block: A Massachusetts soldier recalls his wounding at Fredericksburg by Scott Valentine (pp. 67-69)
Josiah Fitch Murphey, a sergeant in the 20th Massachusetts Infantry, was struck in the face by a bullet during the early stages of the Battle of Fredericksburg. “Drenched in blood and feeling faint, he stumbled down Hawke Street and back across the river to a field hospital quartered at the Lacy House,” notes the author. Murphey survived his wound, but the pain stayed with him for a lifetime. His portrait illustrates the text.

Rare profile portrait of the Confederacy’s First General by John O’Brien (pp. 70-71)
A rare image of Gen. Samuel Cooper, and three other portraits of the first soldier to be appointed general in the regular army of the Confederacy, includes a biographical sketch. The second and third generals were Robert E. Lee and Joseph E. Johnston.

The Boat that Brought Stonewall Home: A unique panoramic view evokes the life and death of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson by Warren “H” Shindle (pp. 72-73)
Two images, one well known and another never before published, form a panorama of a section of the James River & Kanawha Canal. Floating on the waterway is the packet boat Marshall, which carried Stonewall Jackson’s remains to its final resting place. Among the landmarks in the background is the ruins of Virginia Military Institute, where Jackson served as an instructor.

The Origin of Military Images by Harry Roach (p. 74)
The founding editor and publisher of MI recounts how he started the magazine, and how he came to be inspired by photo historian William Frassanito. The essay is part of Pioneers, an occasional series that documents Civil War photograph collectors and how they got started.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 75)
Four images are included, and each portrait features a man with the Stars and Stripes.

The Honored Few: Medal of Honor Recipients (p. 76)
In “’Red Burial Blent’ at Nashville, the actions of Col. Philip Sidney Post are detailed. “He was calm, imperturbable, absolutely unaffected by the surroundings, simply going right at the great object that was in front of him.” That object was the Confederate army. Post received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

Sutler’s Row (p. 79)

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A quarter-plate tintype from the Rick Brown Collection is a portrait of a Southern trooper who may hail from Mississippi.

Finding Aid: March/April 2000

The complete issue

Vol. XXI, No. 5
(48 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A large format albumen print courtesy Jack Reeves pictures West Point cadets confronting an engineering challenge circa 1890-1910.

Editor’s Desk (p. 3)
The editor introduces the long-awaited New York issue and thanks Guest Editor Bob Mulligan for his outstanding efforts, and mentions an upcoming exhibit on Maine in the Civil War, a new website for Indiana soldiers and symposia about women in the Civil War.

Mail Call (pp. 4-5)
Letters about the identity of the soldier on the cover of the last issue dominate. The general consensus is that the man is not John Singleton Mosby.

New York and the War of the Rebellion by Robert Mulligan (pp. 6-8)
The author, in his role as Guest Editor, provides background and context around the Empire State in this introduction. The text is illustrated with portraits of Pvt. Henry N. Francis of the 21st New York Infantry, and a group of post-war veterans at a reunion.

The Union Continentals by Ben Maryniak (pp. 9-11)
A home guard composed of retired military officers, the Union Continentals were led by former President Millard Fillmore. His likeness, in uniform, as well as images of Chaplain John C. Lord and three other men, accompany the historical sketch.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (pp. 12-13)
In “The New York State Jacket, 1861,” McAfee examines the uniform and its distinctive jacket with cloth shoulder straps. A dozen soldier portraits show variations in the design.

How I Spent My Summer Vacation, or “Murdered in Texas Since the War” by Scott Valentine (pp. 16-18)
The author takes readers on the photo sleuthing journey prompted by the acquisition of a carte de visite of Lt. George Washington Smith of the 123rd New York Infantry—an image that he at first was not especially interested in. The image illustrates the text.

“Mary…You Will Find an Ambrotype” The Letters of Justus Grant Matteson and Mary Hatch edited by Paul S. Johnson (pp. 18-19)
A tintype of Matteson illustrates the text of this story, which provides details of his life and military service in the 10th New York Cavalry.

A German Regiment in the Civil War: The 45th New York State Volunteer Infantry “5th German Rifles” by William J. Halpin (pp. 20-23)
This regimental history is illustrated with 11 portraits, including Lt. Col. Augustus Dobke, Lt. Augustus Basson, Lt. Henry Wexel, Capt. William Dross, Lt. Herman Roeke, Capt. Herman Weller, Sgt. Eml Burchard, Pvt. Peter Lander, Capt. William Syring, Lt. Felix Metzinger and Pvt. Anton Jesbera.

The Ninth’s New Colonel: A humorous tale of Old New York by Robert E. Mulligan Jr. (pp. 24-26)
Reprinted from the March/April 1983 issue. The tale of how the 9th Regiment of Infantry, National Guard, State of New York avoided disbandment in 1870 involves individuals of power and position, and with connections to Tammany Hall. “Jubilee Jim” Fisk was well-known to New Yorkers and despite his total lack of military ability, he was elected as the colonel of the unit. He was able to use his deep pockets to ensure the continuation of the 9th. The article recounts the events of July 12, 1871: the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne, which set the Irish and their rival Orangemen against one another. As the Orangemen marched, a number of regiments were ordered to provide them protection, including the 9th. Colonel Jim ended up injured and disguised to escape as gunfire between the marchers, regiments, and the crowd rang out, while four guardsmen, 41 citizens, and no Orangemen lay dead.

Captain White’s Saber by Robert E. Mulligan Jr. (pp. 26-28)
The author begins the story of Patrick White, an officer in the Chicago Mercantile Battery, by describing his sword, a beat-up relic located at the bottom of a shelf in the New York State Museum’s storage area. “On shelves above this sorry sword glitter half a dozen fancy presentation blades. But of all the swords in the collection, this one is the best.” He then explains why. The sword and two wartime portraits of White illustrate the text.

“God Be Merciful” Letters of Arthur O’Keeffe 34th New York Infantry, 1861-1862 by Elizabeth O’Keeffe Fiore (pp. 29-30)
Quotes from letters tell the story of the life of this soldier, whose service was cut short when he was mortally wounded at the Battle of Antietam. His body was never recovered.

Her Name Was “Della” Graves by D.L. Odom (pp. 31-32)
Sarah Adele “Della” Graves, suffered many losses in her life—several children and a brother during the Civil War. The war also caused another brother to be disabled and a brother-in-law to be captured by Confederates. The author tells their stories, which are illustrated with portraits of Della, her husband, Sgt. Edwin Graves of the 110th New York Infantry, Edwin’s comrade, Henry Monroe Hammond, and an unknown corporal who may be Della’s brother Edmund Wilson of the 24th New York Infantry.

The Rise and Fall of “Boss” Hogg 2nd New York Heavy Artillery by Michael Thaler (pp. 33-35)
George Hogg, notes the author in the introduction to this story, “managed to pack a prodigious amount of mischief into his four-year military career.” What follows is an accounting of various infractions that marred his record. Still, his troubles did not prevent him from becoming the regiment’s lieutenant colonel. His tintype illustrates the text.

New York’s Bureau of Military Statistics by Daniel Lorello (pp. 36-39)
The author, a senior archivist at the New York State Archives, provides an accounting of the bureau and the work it performed during the war. Key to the organization is Lockwood Lyon Doty, the bureau’s first chief. His portrait, and an outdoor image believes to be the Troy Citizens Corps, illustrate the text.

The Separate Companies of the National Guard, State of New York, 1863-1903 by Anthony Gero (pp. 40-44)
This short history includes an account of its militia roots from 1803 to 1863, at which time the National Guard was established. The uniforms of the Guard changed as the state and the rest of the nation advanced through the latter half of the 19th century. Some of the changes are documented in photographs from the author’s collection, which include 10 examples published here. An additional photo, a group of veterans at the dedication of the monument to “Cowan’s Battery,” 1st Independent Battery, at Gettysburg’s Bloody Angle on July 3, 1887, rounds out the narrative.

Sutler’s Row (pp. 45-48)

Back cover
A quarter-plate tintype from the Michael Donahue Collection pictures Sgt. Edwin T. Marsh of the 140th New York Infantry at Warrenton, Va., in December 1863.

Finding Aid: January/February 2000

The complete issue

Vol. XXI, No. 4
(40 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A half-plate ruby ambrotype from the Al Holzinger Collection pictures an unknown soldier that some believe may be a young John Singleton Mosby.

Editor’s Desk (p. 3)
The editor explains that the New York issue has been pushed back, mentions that Wisconsin and Tennessee issues are in planning, and that The Western Reserve Historical Society will host a special Civil War exhibit.

Mail Call (pp. 4-5)
Letters include a call to action to maintain the Gettysburg monuments, praise for Southern Soldiers, questions about the identity of two portraits, and more.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (pp. 6-7)
In “3rd Regiment New Jersey Volunteer Cavalry, 1864-65 (1st U.S. Hussar Regiment) ‘A Horse to Ride and a Sword to Wield,’” McAfee examines the distinctive uniform and history of the “Butterfly Regiment.” The text is illustrated with portraits of Conrad Warnick of Company M and an unknown first sergeant. Also included is an engraving from Leslie’s Illustrated.

Will the Real John Singleton Mosby Please Stand Up? Wild-eyed speculation by Harry Roach (pp. 8-9)
The editor and publisher makes the case that the soldier pictured on the cover may in fact be a young Mosby. A comparison of the image to four known portraits of Mosby illustrates the text.

The Musket Bullets Rattled Like Hail Against the Bulwarks: Excerpts from the diary of Pvt. George Varnick, U.S.M.C. Marine Guard, U.S.S. Richmond, Mississippi River, April 24-May 1, 1862 edited by David M. Sullivan (pp. 10-17)
The dramatic capture and occupation of New Orleans is the focal point of diary entries by Varnick, who joined the Marines at Philadelphia on June 5, 1860.

Josiah Archibald Lee, Private, Company I, The Pettus Rifles, 17th Mississippi Infantry, C.S.A. by Bruce Reith (pp. 18-19)
Lee was one of four brothers who served in the regiment. Though wounded at Gettysburg and Richmond, he survived the war and lived until 1907. His wartime portrait illustrates the text. Also included are vignette profiles of his brothers, John, William and Giles.

My Old Blue Cavalry Trowsers: a poem by Winsor Bruce Smith, late sergeant, 1st Maine Cavalry by James J. Hennessey (pp. 20-21)
Well-worn paints of faded blue dominate the first stanza of a poem by Smith, who survived capture at Weldon Railroad, Va., on Sept. 29, 1864, and imprisonment in Richmond. Known as “Win” to intimates, he died on June 25, 1885—exactly 20 years to the day if his discharge from the army. A portrait of Smith illustrates the text.

“I am Tired of Curing Wounds…I Now Prefer to Make Them” The life & death of Lucius Manlius Sargent, 1st Massachusetts Cavalry by Paul R. Johnson, M.D., F.A.C.S., and Samuel B. Burgess, M.D., F.C.A.P. (pp. 22-28)
Artist, surgeon and soldier, Sargent practices all three with success—until a rebel shell struck him in the chest during a fight at Bellfield, Va., on Dec. 9, 1864. His wartime portrait, examples of his illustrations and surgical kit illustrate the text.

Bvt. Brig. Gen. F.A. Starring: Opportunist or Ideal Soldier? by Richard K. Tibbals (pp. 29-37)
The author explores the web of connections between Starring and other senior officers in an effort to answer the question in the headline. A series of portraits of Starring along with other soldiers in his orbit, including Brig. Gen. Thomas E.G. Ransom, Gen. Mason Brayman, Capt. William A. Bailhache, Lt. George Colby, Pvt. Anson Hemingway, Maj. Joseph Stockton and Lt. Col. Joseph Wright.

Passing in Review (p. 38)
Three publications are mentioned, Faded Coat of Blue (Avon Books) by Owen Parry, Gettysburg’s Unknown Soldier: The Life, Death, and Celebrity of Amos Humiston (Praeger) by Mark H. Dunkelman and Custer and His Commands from West Point to Little Big Horn (Stackpole Books) by Kurt Hamilton Cox.

Light & Shadow: Technical Aspects of Photography & Collecting (p. 39)
Caring for tintypes and ambrotypes are discussed in this installment.

Captain Bob’s Caveat Emptorium (p. 43)
A photo of Lord Cardigan himself is offered by the cheeky Captain. As usual, he’s trying to pull one over on us.

Sutler’s Row (p. 40)

Back cover
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Richard Tibbals Collection pictures a militiaman in a uniform based on George Washington’s Continentals.

Finding Aid: November/December 1999

The complete issue

Vol. XXI, No. 3
(48 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate daguerreotype from Brian Massey pictures his ancestor, Brig. Gen. Paul Quattlebaum, commanding the 3rd Brigade, South Carolina uniformed militia, circa 1846-1853.

Editor’s Desk (p. 5)
The editor shares details about the upcoming New York issue, notes another upcoming issue dedicated to women and announces the opening of The National Museum of the Civil War Soldier at the Pamplin Historical Park in Petersburg, Va.

Mail Call (pp. 6-7)
Letters include comments about Cherbourg photographer Rondin, praise for Jerry Harlowe’s Swan Song and the Indian Wars issue, correction on the misidentification of a vivandière and more

A “Salty” Salt Print…Perhaps taken by an “old salt?” by Earl Sheck (pp. 8-11)
The author explains how photo analysis led him to probably identifications of many of the 13 navy and two Marine officers pictured on the deck of the Colorado. The identified men supported by other photographs include Masters T. Steece and Joseph Tuck, Marine officers McLane Tilton and E.M. Reynolds, Executive Officer Lt. A.V. Reed, Asst. Surg. A. Hudson, Paymaster H. Etting and Midshipman F.J. Higginson. Other men in the image are identified by their rank but are not supported by other photographs.

Great Guns! Top images at the 1999 Gettysburg Show (pp. 12-23)
A gallery of 37 plate and paper images reveal a diversity of subjects, including a monster cannon, navy vessels and personnel, infantrymen, cavalry soldiers, militiamen, soldiers with brass instruments, Zouaves, a lone Chasseur, post-Civil War leathernecks, double-images and more.

The 44th Massachusetts at Camp Meigs: A panorama of the training camp at Readville by Paul R. Johnson, M.D. (pp. 24-27)
The author places context around a unique panoramic images and highlights two sections of the image that are especially relevant. A second image, a group of men from the regiment posed with a flag upon which is printed GUM SWAMP!!!, relates to an expedition in North Carolina in 1863.

Southern Soldiers (pp. 28-38)
A survey of 30 Confederate soldier portraits are mostly unidentified. Some names, however, are known. They include John Warwick Daniel of the staff of Gen. Jubal Early, Charles Carter Minor of Virginia’s Albemarle Artillery, Glenmore M. Turner of the 11th Virginia Infantry, E.S. Drew of Louisiana’s Washington Artillery, John G. Lee of the 18th Virginia Infantry, W.T. Newman of the 64th Georgia Infantry, John A. Rawle of Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s artillery, Conquest Cross Harris of the 12th Tennessee Infantry and Bell’s Cavalry Brigade, John Gross of the 42nd Virginia Infantry and James Risque Hutter of the 11th Virginia Infantry.

Passing in Review (p. 39)
One publication is mentioned, U.S.S. New Ironsides in the Civil War (Naval Institute Press) by William H. Roberts.

Friend or Foe? (pp. 40-41)
Readers are challenged to identify five soldier portraits as American or not.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (pp. 42-43)
In “8th Regiment Heavy Artillery, New York Volunteers, 1862-65 ‘The Sons of Friends and Neighbors,’” McAfee examines the uniform and history of the regiment. The text is illustrated with portraits of Pvt. Elisha Wentworth and Corp. (later Quartermaster Sgt.) Stephen Vail.

Captain Bob’s Caveat Emptorium (p. 43)
A photo of Lord Cardigan himself is offered by the cheeky Captain. As usual, he’s trying to pull one over on us.

Sutler’s Row (pp. 44-46)

Stragglers (pp. 47-48)
Solo images from the collections of our readers features eight examples, including “Morning scene at Camp Lander. Lieuts. Davis & Holbrook.” One of the two officers is pulling on his boot.

Back cover
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Roy Mantle Collection pictures Capt. Henry C. Risdon of the 23rd New Jersey Infantry.

Finding Aid: September/October 1999

The complete issue

Vol. XXI, No. 2
(40 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A cabinet card from the B. William Henry Collection pictures Guy V. Henry, West Point Class of 1861, Civil War colonel, Medal of Honor recipient and Indian Wars commander.

Editor’s Desk (p. 3)
The editor notes reaction to the $387,500 price for a Southworth & Hawes daguerreotype at auction, the opening of an exhibit about Varina Davis at the Confederate Museum in New Orleans and a new website for 1861 Uniform Regulations of the U.S. army.

Mail Call (p. 4)
A comment about a photo on page 45 of Volume XXI Number 1 notes that an image pictured on the page id a member of the 103rd New York National Guard.

Passing in Review (p. 5)
Two publications are mentioned, Into the Fight: Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg (White mane Publishing Co.) by John Michael Priest and India-Rubber and Gutta-Percha in the Civil War Era: An Illustrated History of Rubber and Pre-Plastic Antiques and Militaria (O’Donnell Publications) by Mike Woshner.

Peacekeepers & Indian Fighters, The U.S. Army in the West, 1866-1898: A photographic survey compiled from the collections of our readers (pp. 6-11)
A gallery of 17 images includes soldiers and Native American warriors.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (pp. 12-13)
In “Sack Coat to Blouse: Fatigue uniforms after the Civil War” McAfee examines the ubiquitous blue coat and notes how it changed. Three images showing soldiers in the 1872, 1874 and 1887 pattern blouses illustrate the text.

West Pointers in the West: Brief portraits of young regulars on the frontier by David Neville (pp. 14-16)
Profiles and portraits of cavalrymen include Alexander Oswald Brodie and Robert P.P. Wainwright of the 1st, Charles Francis Roe of the 2nd, Charles King and William Scribner Schuyler of the 5th and Charles Larned of the 7th.

Boots and Saddles: Images of the Indian-fighting army in the collection of B. William Henry (pp. 17-33)
A survey of 44 images includes Lt. Gen. Philip Henry Sheridan, 2nd Lt. Henry Haviland Wright and other portraits, plus interior and exterior views of places associated with the frontier. Collector Bill Henry, a former historian with the National Park Services, amassed the images over a period of 25 years.

Fort Wadsworth: Views of a prairie bastion in the Dakota Territory by John Adams-Graf (pp. 34-37)
A history of the fort is illustrated with three outdoor photographs, a sketch and portraits of soldiers William Stanley, Jesse Alvin Penn Hampson and Theodore Schwann.

Sutler’s Row (pp. 38-39)

Back cover
A cabinet card from the Mahlon Nichols Collection pictures Joseph Culbertson Sr., an army scout, shaking the hand of his old friend Feather Ear Ring.