Military Images

Finding Aid: Spring 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A half-plate ambrotype from the David W. Vaughan Collection pictures William Houston House of the 13th Georgia Cavalry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor introduces two new departments, Behind the Backdrop by Adam Ochs Fleischer and Material Culture, which is guest hosted. The editor also notes a modification in policy regarding colorized images, which will be allowed for educational purposes. Such images reproduced in the magazine will be accompanied by the un-colorized image.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments on Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds,and a note regarding a misidentified epaulette.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A tree map diagram visualizes enlistments in the Union and Confederate armies.

Passing in Review (pp. 6-8)
Featured media includes The 16th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War (Michigan State University Press) by Kim Crawford, 100 Significant Civil War Photographs: Atlanta Campaign (Historical Publications LLC), and the movie short Hold My Horse (Look Around You Ventures, LLC) starring Christian Stolte and Patrick Webb.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-13)
In “Lost and Found in the Library of Congress,” Luther details his journey that began with a questionable caption on a single glass plate negative and ended with an extensive examination of captions attached to 16 negatives—11 of which he found proved incorrect or unclear.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 14)
A sixth-plate ambrotype discovered in Florence, S.C., pictures a militiaman. He may have been a member of the Darlington Rifles, a local militia company.

The Honored Few (p. 16)
Willie Johnston, an 11-year-old drummer in the 3rd Vermont Infantry, managed to hold on to his instrument during the desperate march from the Malvern Hill battlefield to Harrison’s Landing. On July 4, 1862, after Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan ordered a review to boost morale, only Johnston had a drum to play. Other musicians had either discarded their drums during the march or put them in temporary storage aboard baggage wagons. Word of Willie’s lone performance made its way to Washington, D.C., and resulted in his receipt of the nation’s highest military honor.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 18)
Navy Rear Adm. Richard Worsam Meade was an irascible man, a trait he shared in common with his famous uncle, Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade. Rear Adm. Meade’s temper got the best of him late in his career when he insulted President and Commander-in-Chief Grover Cleveland. The incident ended with Meade’s dismissal from the Navy. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 20)
Four-year-old Major Willie Bagley, “The Wisconsin Infant Drummer,” enjoyed a brief stint in the spotlight as a performer for P.T. Barnum. The legendary Barnum posted with Bagley to mark the association.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “The Weaponization of Technology and Psychology,” Frohne details how today’s forgers  “are far smarter, have far better technology, and are very close to producing perfect fake cartes de visite.” He illustrates the column with two cartes that fooled him.

Georgians in Gray: Images from the David W. Vaughan Collection, with text by August Marchetti (pp. 24-35)
More than 15 years ago, a gallery of David W. Vaughan’s portraits of Georgia Confederates debuted in this magazine. Since then, the collection has been recognized across the country, including the landmark 2013 exhibit Photography and the American Civil War at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Vaughan has continued to add to his collection. This gallery highlights recent acquisitions.

Commemorating Uncle Billy’s 200th Birthday in Portraits, with images from the Jerry Everts Collection (pp. 36-45)
William Tecumseh Sherman is front center in 25 portraits that document his rise from major general in 1863 to General of the Army to his retirement.

Chivalrous Legacy: The story behind Tunis A.M. Craven’s last recorded words at Mobile Bay by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 46-48)
The Battle of Mobile Bay is known for two distinct human moments connected to torpedoes: Read Adm. David Farragut’s utterance paraphrased as “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead,” and Cmdr. Tunis Augustus Macdonough Craven’s words as his ironclad Tecumseh sank, “After you, sir.” This story puts Craven’s words in context, and is illustrated with four portraits of him.

Antebellum Midshipmen: A survey of Navy portraits with images from the Dr. William Schultz Collection (pp. 50-54)
Fourth in a series of galleries of pre-Civil War daguerreotypes from the Schultz collection, this survey examines nine portraits. They include an early view of a midshipman by pioneer photographer John Plumbe, John “Jack” Wilkes, Jr., the son of career naval officer Charles Wilkes, and John Gardner Mitchell, for whom Mitchell Bay in Alaska is named.

A Merchant Prince Goes to War: Baltimore’s Lt. Noah Dixon Walker, C.S.A. by Ronald S. Coddington with Ross J. Kelbaugh (pp. 56-60)
Noah Dixon Walker received an offer of $200,000 ($6 million in today’s dollars) not to enlist in the Confederate army. The man who made the offer was his father, wealthy Baltimore merchant Noah Walker. His son passed on the offer to become an officer in the 44th Virginia Infantry. This is his story.

Accidental American, Soldier, Artist, Photographer: The notable journey of Civil War veteran William Kurtz by Scott Valentine (pp. 62-65)
After fate dashed his dream to start a new life in China, Germany’s William Kurtz found himself stranded on the shores of the U.S. with little money and prospects. He managed to find a job in a New York City photographer’s studio, and it launched him on a prosperous high-profile career.

Inside “The Empty Sleeve” by James S. Brust (pp. 66-67)
Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard is perhaps best remembered for his post-Civil War roles with the Freedman’s Bureau and the establishment of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Far less known is a speech he gave in Maine soon after the amputation of his arm after it was severely damaged during the 1862 Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. Howard’s words inspired poet David Barker’s “The Empty Sleeve,” which holds a unique place in American popular culture.

Seamless Sharpshooters: How a revolutionary breakthrough in garment design proved undesirable in war by Brian T. White (pp. 68-70)
Seamless overcoats proved the rage in the late 1850s, thanks to innovative efforts to manipulate wool into form-fitting clothing. Among those who took advantage of the latest technology was Col. Hiram Berdan, the engineer, inventor and crack marksman who raised two regiments of sharpshooters for the Union army. His men received seamless overcoats as part of their standard issue uniform.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 72-75)
In his inaugural column, “A Daguerreian Pioneer at the Rendezvous of Distribution,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas depicting a scene that includes Sibley tents and a palm tree. His investigations highlight the man behind the backdrop, John Jones, and the gallery he operated.

Material Culture by Frederick C. Gaede (pp. 76-77)
In this inaugural column, guest author Gaede investigates leather neck stocks from 1851-1865. Though they are long gone from the military, they live on in the Marine moniker “Leatherneck.”

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 79)
Included are three portraits of Union soldiers, including a Zouave who served in the 9th New York Infantry from the Anthony F. Gero Collection.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Paul Russinoff Collection pictures a man reading a newspaper. He is dressed in shirtsleeves and what appears to be a military vest.

Finding Aid: Winter 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 1
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Gary Waddey Collection pictures Ned and Gabe Fowlkes of Tennessee. Taken about October 1865, Ned served in the Union army and Gabe in the Confederate military.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor reflects on the generosity of subscribers who contributed funds to purchase subscriptions for students at Lake Hill Elementary School in Union City, Tenn., and thanks those who contributed to the “Tennesseans in Gray” gallery.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes notes from new and returning subscribes, late war Zouave uniforms and Henry Deeks’ business card.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A chart based on statistics from the U.S. Sanitary Commission shows that camp condition grades worsened during the first half of the Civil War.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
An interview with Diane Waggoner of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., curator of “The Eye of the Sun,” an exhibit celebrating the 180th birthday of photography.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “Why Photo Sleuths Do—and Don’t—Share With the Community,” Kurt shares information based on his interviews with collectors.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A half-plate daguerreotype from the Rich Jahn Collection is a portrait of an officer dressed in the 1851 regulation uniform. He holds a Model 1850 foot officer’s sword.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Edward Hill, a captain in the 16th Michigan Infantry, earned the Medal of Honor for leading a charge against Confederate forces during the Battle of Cold Harbor on June 1, 1864. Hill survived a serious gunshot wound in his hip and ended the war as the regiment’s lieutenant colonel.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
James Edgar Engle, a first sergeant in the 97th Pennsylvania Infantry, dragged gum blankets field with cartridges over a dangerous patch of battleground during the Battle of Bermuda Hundred on May 18, 1864. Engle’s efforts kept his comrades supplied with ammunition until he suffered wounds that required the amputation of his left arm. He received the Medal of Honor in 1896 and died the following year. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry (p. 18)
A scissor-wielding seamstress sewing a pair of pants made of heavy, dark material and lined. The resemble a pair of officer’s trousers.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In “CDVs That Never Existed,” Perry describes how a discolored carte de visite was trimmed and pasted into a period tintype mat. The results effectively hid the discolored area from potential buyers.

Brothers at Arms by Gary Waddey (pp. 22-24)
Tennessee’s Edward and Gabriel Fowlkes grew up together in Hickman County. Then the war came, and the went separate ways—one into the Union army and the other into the Confederate army. Their story is representative of how the war tore families apart.

Tennesseans in Gray (pp. 26-42)
A gallery of representative images and stories of soldiers includes 38 original portraits of men from Tennessee who enlisted in the Confederate army. They came from all walks of life—and some paid the ultimate price.

Fouled Anchors and Mamelukes: A survey of military portraits of officers and enlisted men in the Navy and Marines by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 44-53)
The first generations of men that joined the Navy and Marines after Congress passed the “Act to Provide a Naval Armament” in 1794 made history during a period of major change. A selection of their images and stories are included here.

Confederates in Paris by John O’Brien (pp. 54-55)
Parisians in the French capital glimpsed portraits of Southern military and political generals in 1864 thanks to a partnership between two photographers, Sterling C. McIntyre of the Confederate States and Jean Nicholas Truchelut of France. A total of 16 cartes de visite are pictured here.

Ock Tyner Leaves His Mark: Am Illinois photographer’s inscription provides unique historical context by Paul Russinoff (pp. 56-59)
Oscar Newton Tyner, known as “Ock” to his pals, worked as a photographer’s assistant in the gallery of Barr & Young of Vicksburg. One of the images Tyner printed and signed was Jesse Root Grant, father of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Turns out the photo was taken at a low point during the general’s military career.

Respect for the 14th by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 60-63)
George Alexander, an African American from Tennessee, and his comrades in the 14th U.S. Colored Infantry proved their valor in battle. They were commanded by Col. Thomas Jefferson Morgan, the grandson of a slaveowner and the son of an abolitionist. At the Battle of Decatur, Ala., in October 1864, the 14th fought with the same courage and determination as the well-known 54th Massachusetts Infantry—but the regiment’s story is forgotten.

The Benefactress: Reformer Ellen Cheney Johnson in war and peace by Elizabeth A. Topping (pp. 64-65)
Ellen Cheney Johnson, a leader in the New England Women’s Auxiliary Association, raised serious money on behalf of Union soldiers and sailors. Her work for military men and, after the war, on behalf of the poor, benefitted uncounted lives.

Michiganders Identified: A book in a local historical society reconnects names and faces of five soldiers by Martin N. Bertera (pp. 66-67)
In 1861, Mathew Brady made easy money photographing patriotic soldiers who arrived in Washington, D.C., to protect the capitol and the Union. The identities of the soldiers in many of the surviving images have been lost. Historian Marty N. Bertera was able to identify one group from the 4th Michigan Infantry.

The Man Behind “The Tree”: Photographer William T. Seeley of Elmira, N.Y. by Kyle M. Stetz (pp. 68-70)
The author traced a grouping of images with a distinctive backdrop—a large tree with a curved trunk and a cloud-like canopy of leaves—to William T. Seeley of Elmira, N.Y.

Entered According to Act of Congress: Copyright and photography in 19th Century America by Jason Lee Guthrie (pp. 72-75)
Civil War photo collectors are familiar with the legal language often found on images by Mathew Brady and other photographers: “Entered According to Act of Congress…” What exactly does this mean? Here’s the backstory.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 76-77)
Included are four portraits of Confederates and an outdoor image of five artfully-posed federal infantrymen.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Joe Normandy Collection pictures an early-war Ohio cavalryman with a crocheted and tasseled patriotic badge pinned to his chest.

Finding Aid: Autumn 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 4
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection pictures an officer wearing an 1851 regulation dress uniform and a woman who wears a cross around her neck.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor recalls to the late Michael J. McAfee, a longtime columnist for MI and a giant in the community of collectors.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes tributes to Mike McAfee, the backstory about the discovery of the daguerreotype of general and future president Franklin Pierce published in the last issue.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A look at the number of active duty army and navy personnel in the U.S. military between 1848 and 1861.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Behind the Rifle: Women Soldiers in Civil War Mississippi by Shelby Harriel (University Press of Mississippi), and The Maryland Brigade by Daniel Carroll Toomey (Toomey Press).
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “Evidence-Based Tips for Using Civil War Photo Sleuth,” Kurt discusses how two forms of automation, face recognition and filtering military records, eliminate potential portraits and narrow the possible choices to identify an individual.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection is a portrait of an infantryman dressed in the blue fatigue jacket from 1836 and a Model 1840 officer’s sword.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Samuel Cole Wright suffered numerous wounds and injuries during his four years in uniform with the 3rd and 29th Massachusetts infantries. During his service in the last-named regiment, he was wounded in both legs during the fighting at the Battle of Antietam’s Bloody Lane. He received the Medal of Honor for his courage.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
John William Fenton, a captain in the 132nd New York Infantry, was brought up on charges after he assaulted the owner of a saloon in New Bern, N.C., in late 1864. His actions resulted in a dishonorable discharge, which was overturned after his comrades petitioned to allow him to resign with honor. His post-war life took him to Washington, D.C., where he died in 1891 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Ron Field(p. 18)
The Haley brothers opened a store in New Market, N.H., on the eve of the Civil War. The building, pictured in this wartime stereo card, produced fatigue blouses and coats for several state regiments. A crowd is gathered in front of the store.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In his inaugural column, “Develop Your Sixth Sense for Fakes,” Perry tells the origin story of fakes, and discusses resources to help you combat fake images with knowledge.

Between Guadalupe Hidalgo and Secession: A survey of military portraits of West Pointers and Regulars on the western frontier by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 22-30)
This is the second in a multi-part series of pre-Civil War military portrait photography from the collection of Dr. William Schultz. Included are several men who went on to serve in the Union and Confederate armies—Confederate surgeon Robert Little Brodie, Capt. Martin Mullins of the 5th U.S. Infantry, and Union generals George Crook, Henry Prince and Henry Walton Wessels.

The Great American Civil War Pipe Gallery (pp. 31-38)
Tobacco was hailed as the soldier’s constant companion—when he could find it—by some and also as a wicked habit by others. In this gallery, a companion to last autumn’s cigar feature, we celebrate those who enjoyed the soldier’s and sailor’s solace in front of the camera.

Cultural Ambassador: On diplomacy’s front lines in Morocco and elsewhere with Albert L. Gihon, U.S. Navy by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 40-45)
Gihon, a career navy officer, hailed from a  family of adventurers that included his father, who participated in the California Gold Rush, and his brother, a prominent Philadelphia photographer. Gihon’s adventures took him to the coast of North Africa, where he and his shipmates on the St. Louis played a role in U.S.-Moroccan diplomacy.

Captured by the Lens in Bermuda: The Confederate Photography of S.W. Gault by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 46-50)
Tennessee’s Samuel Walter “S.W.” Gault traveled the U.S. as a photographer before the war, and when hostilities erupted between the North and South, he set out for Bermuda to avoid the conflict. But he could not escape the far reaches of the Civil War—and a rare opportunity to capture Confederates with his camera.

Corporal Austin Captures a Flag by Ron Field (p. 51)
Albert Austin and his comrades in the 8th Connecticut Infantry had their baptism under fire at the Battle of New Bern, N.C., on March 14, 1862. On that day, Austin picked up a war trophy. Here, we bring together the relic and his portrait—and tell Austin’s story.

Nurse Pomroy: Comforter-in-Chief to the Lincoln Family by Chris Foard, MSN, RN (pp. 52-57)
Rebecca Pomroy came to Washington to take care of wounded and sick soldiers. Much to her surprise, she was called to care for the Lincoln family—a role that she enjoyed, but also one that challenged her because it kept her from the soldier boys she pledged to serve.

Filler Cartes de Visite: A fresh look at art, humor and satire by James S. Brust (pp. 58-65)
In recent times, cartes de visite of art, celebrities, scenes and other non-personal portraits tucked into albums have been labeled as “fillers.” The term implies that they were less desirable afterthoughts. The opposite is true. We tell you why.

Hard Drinking Colonels: A tableau of two commanders of the 69th Ohio Infantry by David B. Holcomb (pp. 66-67)
A tintype of four soldiers provides an entry point into the early and troubled history of the 69th Ohio Infantry, which involved two colonels with alcohol problems.

The Little Sack of Flour That Won the West by Jeremy Rowe (pp. 68-70)
What began as a bet on a mayoral race in a rough and tumble Nevada mining town ended with mock auctions across the West for a sack of flour that raised huge amounts of money to support Union troops. The man who led the philanthropic effort, merchant Reuel Colt “R.C.” Gridley, was an unlikely fundraiser.

The Entertainer: Long before Bob Hope entertained the troops, there was Barney Williams by Kraig McNutt (pp. 71-74)
The popular Irish singer and stage star, along with his wife, Maria, made a fortune and achieved celebrity status before the Civil War. After hostilities began, Barney brought much needed cheer to Union soldiers. President Abraham Lincoln was a fan—and John Wilkes Booth was not.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
Included is a portrait of the brothers Henry and William King, enlisted men in the 52nd Pennsylvania Infantry, a Union infantryman with an Austrian Lorenz rifle musket, and two casually-dressed federals pictured just days before their Suffolk, Va., garrison came under siege by Confederates.

The Last Shot (p. 80)Two cartes de visite from the Karl Sundstrom Collection picture Union officers, each with a pencil inscription that accuses one of gambling and the other of cowardice.

Finding Aid: Summer 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 3
(80 pages)

Purchase print issue ($12.75)
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection pictures a Mexican War era enlisted man.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor discusses reflects on the passing of pioneer photograph collector Henry Deeks.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes tributes to late collectors Henry Deeks and Jim Frasca, and a note about credited photos.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of occupations in the 1860 U.S. Census reveals the various ways in which photographers identified themselves.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Our Brethren Are On the Field: Letters, Diaries and Remembrances From Those Who Fought and Campaigned For Chattanooga by Dick Ransom and Brad Quinlin (Mountain Arbor Press) is a book inspired by a World War II Act of Heroism.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “Second Opinion,” Kurt discusses a new enhancement to Civil War Photo Sleuth, called Second Opinion, which allows users to gather additional feedback about a specific aspect of a photograph.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Rick Brown Collection is a portrait of a prototypical militiaman on the eve of the Civil War.

The Honored Few (p. 12)
Hubert Anton Casimir Dilger, a captain in the 1st Ohio Light Artillery, fought a delaying action at the Battle of Chancellorsville for which the government recognized his actions with the Medal of Honor.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
James Downey, a private in the hard-fighting 2nd Ohio Cavalry, survived numerous operations during the war. His luck ran out on April 1, 1865, during the Battle of Five Forks. Wounded in action, he succumbed to his injuries in Washington, D.C., and was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry (p. 16)
Almost nothing is known about the life of Diven Glover, save one significant detail: She was an enslaved woman. Her photograph, as well as the man, who owned her, Capt. George Frederick Glover of the 43rdd Alabama Infantry, are pictured here.

From Vera Crux to Mexico City: A survey of Mexican War era portraits of West Pointers, Regulars and Volunteers by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 18-28)
Representative images include future President Franklin Pierce and career military men who went on to become generals during the Civil War, including the Union’s Richard Delafield, George H. Gordon, William A. Nichols, Charles F. Smith, George H. Thomas, and Confederates Dabney H. Maury and John S. Williams.

Glinting Cutlasses and Flashing Revolvers: Ensign Abner Stover’s Civil War by Ronald S. Coddington, featuring images and artifacts from the Herman Kinder Collection (pp. 30-36)
Ensign Abner Stover’s navy service began on the Union blockade off the coast of Georgia aboard the gunboat Water Witch. It ended in a trip to a prison camp after a night attack by Confederate forces ended in the capture of the vessel. He told the story of his capture and imprisonment in a previously unknown diary.

A Tale of Two Steamers by Ron Field (pp. 38-40)
A pair of spectacularly tinted sixth-plate tintypes picture an Eads-class gunboat and other vessels. Two of the steamers, the Edward Walsh and the Hamilton Belle, are identified. Senior Editor Ron Field examines their service along the Mississippi River, and recognizes that little scholarship has been written about the contribution of these workhorses to the war effort.

Cadet to Boy Colonel: The life and service of North Carolina’s Henry King Burgwyn, Jr. by Dave Batalo and Rusty Hicks with Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 42-46)
Henry King Burgwyn, Jr., of the 26th North Carolina Infantry left Virginia Military Institute after the war began and rose in rank to become colonel of the 26th North Carolina Infantry. He led his men into action on the first day of the Battle of Gettysburg and suffered a mortal wound in the thick of the action against Wisconsin troops of the Iron Brigade. Burgwyn’s story is illustrated with three likenesses of him, two photographs from his pre-war days at VMI and a portrait painted in 1904.

President Lincoln’s Bodyguard for a Day: Sgt. H. Paxton Bigham’s Gettysburg experience by Paul Russinoff (pp. 48-51)
Hugh Paxton Bigham has a unique connection to the Battle of Gettysburg. A local farmer from who grew up close to town, he participated in some of the earliest action during the days leading up to the engagement. Months after the fight, he served as personal bodyguard to Abraham Lincoln during his historic Gettysburg in November 1863 to dedicate the Soldier’s Cemetery.

Dwelling in Peace in the Land of the Spirits: Pvt. Admiral Coon’s portraits reveal a family’s pain and sorrow by Paul D. Mehney and Charles Joyce (pp. 52-56)
Portraits of Pvt. Admiral T. Coon of the 137th New York Infantry with his sister and nephew speak to the separation that affected hundreds of thousands of families in the North and South. In Coon’s case, a wound suffered at Gettysburg proved mortal—and deprived his sister of a brother and a nephew of an uncle.

Profiles of Union Soldiers in the Thick of the Fight for Petersburg by Scott Valentine (pp. 58-61)
A collection of five portraits of infantrymen from the author’s collection, each accompanied by narrative of the subject’s experience during the Petersburg Campaign, highlight the challenges of the brutal operations. They include George C. Case of the 57th New York, Frank H. Kempton of the 58th Massachusetts, Arthur V. Coan of the 146th New York, Samuel S. Foss of the 8th Connecticut and John M. Gilfillan of the 39th New York.

PIPs (Photos in photos) from the Doug York Collection (pp. 62-65)
Portrait photographs of individuals posed with a photograph of someone else are uncommon. Yet they were made throughout the 19th century. We offer a selection of representative images from the collection of Doug York.

Pre-Imposition Tax Stamps by Scott Vezeau (pp. 66)
It is well-known to collectors that the federal government taxed photographs to pay for the Civil War. It is a mistake, however, to conclude that tax-stamped images do not exist beyond the official date parameters. The author makes his case with four cartes de visite.

Optics: Military men with field glasses and telescopes (pp. 67-73)
Field glasses and telescopes loomed large in the Civil War. Used by soldiers and sailors to gain an edge over their enemies, it comes as no surprise that numerous references to this essential accouterment appear in period writings—and in photographs.

Educator, Photographist and Prisoner of War: David Heckendorn’s journey as an approved Army of the Potomac photographer by Sidney Dreese, with images from Diane Mazze (pp. 74-75)
Had the war never happened, David Heckendorn might have had a long career in the school system of Union County, Pa. But it did, and Heckendorn, an amateur daguerreotypist, became an approved photographer for the Army of the Potomac. He was captured in Virginia and spent three months in Richmond. He fell ill after his return home and died before the end of the war.

How Much Could Camp Photographers Earn In a Day? A Lot. (p. 76)
A soldier in the 63rd Indiana Infantry wrote a letter to his father chock full of financial details and practical information about photographers in the vicinity of their camp near Bull’s Gap, Tenn., in the spring of 1864. The father no doubt appreciated the intelligence, for he was a practicing photographer. Historian Kraig McNutt researched the letter from the Indiana State Manuscripts Collections.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 74-79)
Union and Confederate images include Maj. William McIntosh Arnold of the 6th Georgia Infantry, a non-commissioned Union officer standing in front of an elaborate back drop, a soldier dressed in a red uniform jacket, 1st Lt. Mims Walker of 4th Alabama Infantry and the staff of Brig. Gen. Evander Law, James Madison Crozer of the Confederate 6th Kentucky Cavalry, and more.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Michael J. McAfee Collection has portraits pasted to both sides—on one, an image of a woman with her husband’s sword, the Stars and Stripes and the family dog, and on the other side a vignette of the same dog.

Finding Aid: Spring 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 2
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
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Inside

Cover image
A ninth-plate ruby ambrotype from the Kevin Canberg Collection pictures a federal enlisted man holding a photograph of another soldier.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor discusses two new ventures, Military Images Live, a bi-monthly video broadcast on Facebook, and the first-ever Civil War Faces Show and Sale, a joint venture with Doug York, Editor of Civil War Faces.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes memorial for late collector John Sickles, an alternative view of an Antebellum Warrior and the discovery of a wooden bowl in the Iowa Historical Museum.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of 5 less discussed factors that negatively impacted prisoners of war, based on scholarship by David Keller, author of The Story of Camp Douglas, Chicago’s Forgotten Civil War Prison.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
Death, Disease and Life at War: The Civil War Letters of Surgeon James D. Benton, 111th and 98th New York Infantry Regiments, 1862-1865 (Savas Beatie) by Christopher E. Loperfido notes the refreshing honesty revealed by the Union officer in his wartime letters.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “Civil War Photo Sleuth: An Update,” Kurt shares statistics about user-created accounts, adding photos, identifying photos, plus information about the current status and future plans for the popular application.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate ambrotype from the Thomas Harris Collection is a portrait of a naval 1st assistant engineer dressed in an 1852 regulation uniform.

The Honored Few (p. 12)
Aaron Steven Lanfare, a first lieutenant in the 1st Connecticut Cavalry, captured the flag of the 11th Florida Infantry during the Battle of Sailor’s Creek in April 1865. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
Georgiana Willets took a break from her duties as a teacher of freedmen in Washington, D.C., to help soldiers suffering wounds and sickness during the 1864 Overland Campaign. She survived the war and married a veteran, James M. Stradling of the 1st New Jersey Cavalry. They are buried side-by-side in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Jeff Giambrone (p. 16)
After the fall of Vicksburg on July 4, 1863, the Union army assumed the difficult role of occupier. An uneasy peace followed, and in one of the many episodes of friction between soldiers and townspeople, Miss Emma Kline was arrested on suspicion of smuggling. She’s pictured here standing between two guards from the 5th Iowa Infantry.

A Million Hells of Screaming Flame: Portraits of Blue and Gray at Shiloh (pp. 18-28)
We remember one of the most significant battles of the war and the Western Theater through representative portraits and stories of more than two dozen soldiers who were killed, wounded and captured, and others, during the chaos and confusion that reigned in and about Pittsburgh Landing during two days in April 1862. Stan Hutson of the National Park Service played an important role in bringing this stories to light.

Infernal Gates: Lt. Borger and the Hornet’s Nest Brigade at Shiloh by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 30-33)
The fighting at the Hornet’s Nest is remembered for the grit of Union troops who defended this sector of the battlefield against Confederate attackers. A brigade of Iowa infantry played a critical role in its defense. One of the regiments, the 12th Iowa, found itself in the center of the fury. The story of one of these Iowans, 2nd Lt. John Herman Borger, a German immigrant and former Marine, is representative of the Union soldier experience.

Reunion and Reconciliation at the Point: Lookout Mountain and the Linn brothers after the war by Dr. Anthony Hodges (pp. 35-41)
In our third and final installment tracing the history of Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga, Tenn., before, during and after the Civil War, Dr. Anthony Hodges explores the area and its development as a hotspot for Union and Confederate veteran reunions, the center of the battlefield preservation movement, and a tourist attraction documented in photographs by Robert M. and James B. Linn.

Requiescat in Pace: Memorial photographs of the Civil War by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 42-50)
A newspaper ad for Mathew Brady’s New York City gallery warned readers, “Never delay the important business of getting your Portrait; you cannot tell how soon it may be too late.” The author suggests these words can be loosely attributed to the creation of the memorial photograph, which is rooted in the European custom of memorial cards. A history of these images includes examples of three types: Formal Cards, Informal Cards and Mourning Wreaths. Also included is a section about unverified cards.

Soldier Photographs, Reunited by Daniel J. Binder (pp. 52-54)
Tintypes and ambrotypes were extremely popular during the Civil War. But they did have one drawback—they could not be easily and inexpensively reproduced. Soldiers fond of the format sat for more than one portrait during a sitting. Many of these pairs of images were separated over time. The author brings three of these pairs together, and shares his insights.

Undivided by Robert Lee Blankenship, Jr. (p. 55)
A poem.

Hidden in Plain Sight: Is Jane Perkins pictured in this iconic Civil War image of Confederate prisoners of war? by Shelby Harriel and Mark Hidlebaugh (pp. 56-58)
An iconic Mathew Brady photograph of Confederate prisoners of war at White House Landing in Virginia is a study in contrasts. One of them is the presence of what appears to be a woman who may be a known female soldier, Jane A. Perkins. The authors make a compelling case that the individual is Perkins by placing the scene in context to events in 1864 and her documented military service, as well as a comparison of the individual pictured to known descriptions.

A New Look at Old Abe’s Color Guard: Researchers combine classic and cutting-edge techniques to reexamine the identities of soldiers in an iconic image by Tyler Phillips, Kenneth E. Byrd and Xukai Zou (pp. 60-64)
Three researchers at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis use classic and cutting edge techniques to reexamine the identities of soldiers pictured in a well-known photo of members of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry with their live eagle mascot, Old Abe. The results of the study confirm the identities of some of the eight men—and raise questions about the others.

Red-Whiskered Artillery Genius: New York’s Capt. Jacob Roemer by Mike Fitzpatrick (pp. 65-69)
Jacob Roemer’s military exploits are largely forgotten. In his four years as captain of the 2nd New York Light Artillery, the German immigrant survived numerous wounds and established a reputation as something of a tactical genius. His knack for improvisation, quick thinking and bold action in the face of adversity belied his lack of a formal military education.

Legacy Fulfilled: One Virginian’s Journey from West Point to Confederate artillery leader by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 70-73)
Virginia’s William Rice Jones left his beloved West Point as a matter of honor and principle after his home state seceded and cast his lot with the Confederate army. The young man eventually rose to become an artillery chief in Texas, and returned to the Lone Star State to make a new life for himself after the end of hostilities.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 74-79)
Union and Confederate images include a young men with a fawn outside a photographer’s studio tent, Nathan Bedford Forrest’s cousin, Capt. Albartus Forrest of the 31st Tennessee Infantry, and a post mortem of Pvt. Alonzo “Lon” Clark of the 31st Maine Infantry, who died of disease only six weeks after he enlisted.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A quarter-plate tintype from the Ronald S. Coddington Collection is a portrait of Union officer thumbing his nose at the camera.

Finding Aid: Winter 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 1
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Buck Zaidel Collection pictures two Union pards fighting for each other and the flag.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
Download (free)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor marks the magazine’s 40th year by placing the publication in context to key events in the modern history of collecting. Also noted is the passing of John R. Sickles, an icon in the collecting community and a former Senior Editor of MI.
Download (free)

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes an example of uncommon placement of chevrons on the coat sleeve of a hospital steward, a question about a Texas identification and a request for more Confederate images.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of the 19 loyal states that did not border the Confederacy shows seven exceeded their quotas for Union troops and the rest barely missed making their numbers.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
Gettysburg’s Coster Avenue: The Brickyard Fight and the Mural (Gettysburg Publishing LLC) by Mark H. Dunkelman is the story of how one man’s vision added an artistic masterpiece to a less-traveled section of the Gettysburg battlefield.
Download (free)

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “What to Do When Gold Standards Go Wrong,” Kurt revisits a column published in the Autumn 2016 issue after alert reader Doug Sagrillo presented him with an identified carte de visite that challenged another listed with a different name in a reputable public collection.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Binder Collection is a portrait believed to be a militia staff officer sitting next to his feathered hat and a document.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 12)
Pvt. George Washington Tucker survived the deadliest day in Vermont history—May 5, 1864. He and his fellow Vermonters suffered 1,234 casualties during the fighting in The Wilderness.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Cecil Clay, a captain in the 58th Pennsylvania Infantry, was conspicuous for gallantry during the attack on Fort Harrison on Sept. 29, 1864. The fight cost him an arm, and resulted in his being awarded the Medal of Honor.

The Citizenry (p. 16)
A group of women stand on the back stairs of a clapboard building in Corning, N.Y. Several of them hold hats in various stages of completion, indicating that they are milliners.

Where Light Meets Lens: Representative images from the Buck Zaidel Collection (pp. 18-29)
Buck Zaidel is perhaps best known as the co-author of the book, Heroes for All Time: Connecticut Soldiers Tell Their Stories. He is also a savvy collector with a keen eye for unique images. Here we showcase selected images from his holdings.

Portraits on The Point: Representative photographs by the studio of Robert M. and James B. Linn by Dr. Anthony Hodges with images from his and other collections (pp. 31-42)
The rocky outcropping that overlooks Chattanooga, Tenn., became the scene of one the most dramatic moments of the Civil War after Union soldiers raised the Stars and Stripes in victory over Confederates on Nov. 25, 1863. Soon after, enterprising photographer Robert M. Linn set up a gallery and captured uncounted numbers of soldiers who visited the iconic spot. In this gallery, we showcase representative images from private collections. This is the second in a three-part series.

Jerseymen! A survey of Civil War soldiers and sailors from the John Kuhl collection (pp. 44-55)
The state of New Jersey’s contribution to Northern arms is evident in the faces and stories of volunteers who served in the Union armies during the Civil War. Original images are included here, many published here for the first time, along with their personal narratives.

New Jersey’s Splendid Colors Recall a Terrible Struggle (pp. 56-57)
An 1885 fire in the New Jersey state capitol building almost destroyed the precious colors carried by regiments during the late Civil War. The 19 men who saved the flags received badges of honor for heroism. One of them, William S. Stryker, accepted the badge with a moving speech.

Guardians of Honor: Men and events that shaped the Medal of Honor by Ron Maness (pp. 60-66)
Though the standard by which the Medal of Honor is substantially the same as it was during the Civil War, the process by which the awards are made is far more rigorous. Two stories here examine how the lack of validation impacted the decoration, and highlight the actions of two forgotten soldiers.

Captain Ramsey and the Birth of the “True Blues” by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 68-70)
David Wardlaw Ramsey numbered among the first Alabama men to join the army in 1861. Those early, heady days of excitement soon gave way to pain, suffering and loss at Island No. 10, Port Hudson and elsewhere.

“Admiral Johnston”: An unofficial powder boy’s courage under fire by Ron Field (pp. 73-75)
Pint-size 6-year-old James Vincent Johnston could scarcely be kept out of harm’s way after he and his mother were trapped aboard the gunboat Forest Rose during a fight near Vicksburg, Miss., in early 1864. His father, the commander of the vessel, resorted to tying the boy to a chair in his cabin to keep him safe. It didn’t work. What happened next became the stuff of navy legend.

British Invasion! Confederate portraits in England by John O’Brien (pp. 76-77)
During the latter period of the war, a series of cartes de visite of Confederates, including President Jefferson Davis, Gen. Robert E. Lee and political and military leaders, was published in London by photographer Charles B. Walker in partnership with Florida lensman S.C. McIntyre. Long overlooked, we explore the history of this unique grouping.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
“Southern Warriors” features four images of Confederates.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
An eighth-plate tintype from the Michele Behan Collection is a portrait of a heavy artilleryman or an infantryman posed with a cannonball.

Finding Aid: Autumn 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 4
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Kevin Canberg Collection pictures a Union veteran seated on a tree trunk with canteen in hand.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
Download (free)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Introducing The Citizenry,” the editor provides background on a new department to recognize the generation who supported soldiers and sailors in blue and gray through original portrait photographs and stories.
Download (free)

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes an early birthday gift for the state of Maine, an emotional reunion with a family photo, a newly discovered photo of George L. Fisher, the durable man of Hagerstown, Md., and a commentary on probably props.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of more than 25,000 photograph citations on Newspapers.com reveals that the Civil War is a time of transition for photographic formats. Ambrotypes dominated in 1861. Four years later, the carte de visite ruled.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
The Soldiers of Fort Mackinac: An Illustrated History (Michigan State University Press) by Phil Porter documents the many soldiers who passed through the fort, including future Union and Confederate generals, during its active operations from 1780 to 1895.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “A New Era in Photo Sleuthing Begins,” Kurt reviews the history of Civil War Photo Sleuth from its soft launch in Gettysburg in 2017 to the official launch inside the Innovation Hub at the National Archives on Aug. 1, 2018. Kurt also discusses early feedback and next steps to fulfill its mission “to recover the names and stories behind every surviving Civil War-era portrait.”

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Paul Reeder Collection is a portrait believed to be a member of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 12)
Capt. Adam Kramer and 86 of his troopers in the 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry launched a successful raid in North Carolina during the closing days of the war. Born and educated in Germany, he started his military service before the war with the 2nd U.S. Dragoons and continued on after the war with the 6th U.S. Cavalry.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Robert Frank Shipley, a sergeant in the 140th New York Infantry, captured the flag of the 9th Virginia Infantry during the Battle of Five Forks—one of 17 soldiers to receive the honor for this engagement. How he came to capture the flag and what happened to the banner after the war are reported here.

The Citizenry (p. 16)
The inaugural department dedicated to images of the Civil War generation is a portrait of Kentuckians Elizabeth Taylor Nelson and John Rowzee Green.

Antietam Album with an introduction by John Banks (pp. 18-23)
A survey of 10 portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers who became casualties in the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War. Two Confederate and eight Union soldiers are profiled.

Blue & Gray Badges of Courage: Representative images from the Kevin Canberg Collection (pp. 24-34)
Kevin Canberg’s journey as a collector began with an unusual Father’s Day gift for his dad—a vintage fireman’s badge from Brooklyn, N.Y. Since then, Canberg has amassed an impressive collection of ambrotypes and tintypes of Union and Confederate soldiers.

The Linns of Lookout: The enterprising brothers behind a legendary photograph gallery by Dr. Anthony Hodges, with images from the author’s collection (pp. 36-43)
In this first installment of a three-part series, we meet two brothers who documented the scene of one of the great moments in Civil War history—the Nov. 24, 1863, Battle of Lookout Mountain during the Chattanooga Campaign. Images include various views of the area around Lookout Mountain, the gallery and several of the best known individual and group portraits.

Civil War Daguerreotypes: Last of photography’s celebrated first format by Ronald S. Coddington with daguerreotypes from the Mike Medhurst Collection (pp. 44-46)
By the start of the war, the daguerreotype’s reign was at an end as cheaper formats chipped away at its once-dominant market position. Two surviving examples of Civil War soldiers remind us of the end of one era and the beginning of another.

Taxing the Sun: The revolution to repeal and replace the stamp act on photos by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 47-50)
The federal government needed to pay for an expensive war and looked to tax goods and services to pay for it. Photographs were among the items singled out. We explore the events that led to the tax, and how Mathew Brady and other leading photographers killed it.

Overworked, Undermanned and Indispensable: Hospital stewards in the Civil War by William T. Campbell, Ed.D, RN (pp. 52-56)
Hospital stewards were pharmacists and so much more on staffs of army hospitals. The author examine their role, responsibilities, selection process and uniforms.

Rescuing Joe Parsons: A researcher’s unexpected journey to connect a face to a mythic tale by Alison Renner (pp. 57-60)
Newspapers across the Union carried the story of two soldiers who lay wounded on the battlefield of Antietam, a blinded Yankee and a rebel unable to walk, who joined forces to make a daring escape. The Union soldier, Pvt. Joseph Parsons of the 2nd Maryland Infantry, lived the rest of his days in darkness and his story faded from American history—until the author and her husband found his portrait in a local antique shop.

Fateful Final Lesson: A schoolteacher-soldier’s journey to Andersonville by Earvin Lee Joyner, Jr. (pp. 62-65)
John William Partridge, a New England educator, started his Civil War military service with the 25th Massachusetts Infantry and he later joined the Signal Corps. Captured during a Confederate raid in New Bern, N.C., his journey ended at Andersonville Prison.

The Defier and other Union archetypes by a master lensman by Jim Frasca (pp. 66-67)
A uniquely, thoughtfully posed selection of 7 Civil War cartes de visite by Frank Rowell of Providence, R.I., a refreshingly innovative photographer whose contributions to the art have been largely forgotten.

The Great American Civil War Cigar Gallery (pp. 69-76)
Tobacco was hailed as the soldier’s constant companion—when he could find it—by some and also as a wicked habit by others. In this gallery, we celebrate those who enjoyed a good smoke in front of the camera.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
“Sergeants in Blue” features eight images of Union men who wore the three-striped chevrons on their sleeves.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Mike Medhurst Collection is a portrait of Granville Moody, the “Famous Fighting Methodist Preacher” who served as colonel of the 74th Ohio Infantry and ended the war as a brevet brigadier general. Moody inscribed the back of the image with a record of marriage vows he administered to John W. Widney and Mary A. Fitzwater Brown of Orange, Ohio.

Finding Aid: Summer 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 3
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A ninth-plate tintype from the Doug York Collection pictures a young enlisted soldier with a knife and Colt Root Revolver.
Download (free)

Table of Contents (p. 1)
Download (free)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Our Digital Preservation Effort,” the editor announces a deal with the non-profit digital library Journal Storage (JSTOR) to digitize and make searchable the entire run of Military Images.
Download (free)

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for personal soldier stories, feedback on the Father of the American Cavalry, comments on a soldier identified as a prototypical Confederate, and clarity of terms and titles used in our Nathan Bedford Forrest gallery.
Download (free)

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of the residences reported by 1,275 men of color upon their enrollment in the 54th Massachusetts Infantry.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
The War Outside My Window: The Civil War Diary of LeRoy Wiley Gresham (Savas Beatie) edited by Janet Elizabeth Croon is the writings of an invalid Georgia boy who observed the rise and fall of the Confederate nation.
Download (free)

Antebellum Warriors (p. 8)
A sixth-plate ruby ambrotype by from the Ron Field Collection is a portrait of Michael G. Stapleton, an Irish-born soldier who served in the 65th New York State Militia. He went on to serve in the Civil War with the 164th New York Infantry but did not live to see the end of hostilities.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 10)
Carlos Alvarez de le Mesa, a native of Spain who served an officer in the 39th New York Infantry, also known as the Garibaldi Guard, was wounded in the Battle of Gettysburg. The bullet that struck his foot ended his active duty and he spent the rest of the war in the Veteran Reserve Corps. His grandson, Terry de la Mesa Allen, became a noted World War II general with the nom de guerre “Terrible Terry.”

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 12-13)
In “Non-Traditional Research Tools—and Serendipity,” Kurt explains how he identified a group of officers pictured in a carte de visite that was partially inscribed on the back of the mount. Period newspapers, letters and other sources helped him out names to all four faces.

Uniforms & History by Michael J. McAfee (p. 14)
In “Men of the Military Telegraph Service,” McAfee profiles this agency run by the Quartermaster Department. The text is illustrated with portraits of service members Samuel M. Brown, David Strouse, David Homer Bates, Richard O’Brien, Homer W. Gilbert and C.A. Homan.

Gettysburg Album: Portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers in the Gettysburg Campaign (pp. 16-22)
A total of 13 images, 5 Confederate and 8 Union, of soldiers who participated parts of the three-day battle and/or related engagements following the rebel retreat. They include John Lewis Ells of the 3rd Georgia Infantry, Kirkbride Taylor of the 8th Virginia Infantry, Augustine Leftwich Jr. of Shoemaker’s Battery, Virginia Horse Artillery, Ludwig Kohn of the 26th Wisconsin Infantry and more.

“You Were Making History”: Faces of Maine men who fought at Gettysburg by Tom Huntington (pp. 24-29)
In this adaptation from his new book, Maine Roads to Gettysburg (Stackpole Books, 2018), the author provides an overview of the Pine State’s contribution to the Civil War through the varied experiences of its military volunteers. Profiles include Freeman McGilvery, Edwin B. Dow, Moses B. Lakeman, Abner Small, George Bisbee, Charles Mattocks, Holman Melcher, Ellis Spear and Samuel Keene. Each is illustrated with a portrait courtesy of the Maine Historical Society.

Reluctant Hero: Otis C. Billings and Cowan’s 1st New York Independent Battery at Gettysburg by Charles Joyce (pp. 30-34)
Billings, a young, battle-hardened soldier with a distinguished record, was unusually reluctant to fight on the third day at Gettysburg. He and his artillery battery, commanded by Capt. Andrew Cowan, went on to fight near The Copse of Trees during Pickett’s Charge. There the fate of Billings and the rest of Cowan’s gunners were decided.

Fallout from the Johnston Reconnaissance: A late-war letter by Robert E. Lee sheds light on an enduring Gettysburg controversy by Ronald S. Coddington with Dave Batalo (pp. 36-37)
In late January 1865, Lt. Col. Samuel Richards Johnston became a father after his wife gave birth to a baby boy. Johnston decided to name his son after the general on whose staff he served—Robert E. Lee. A reply letter from Lee thanking Johnston for the honor suggest the two men were on cordial terms. This suggests Lee harbored no ill will towards Johnston for a July 2, 1863, reconnaissance on Little Round Top that remains a hot topic for historians and other battle enthusiasts.

Silver for The Superb: Hometown tribute to a national hero by Matt Hagans (pp. 38-39)
The wounding of Winfield Scott Hancock during Pickett’s Charge is one of the most notable moments of the Battle of Gettysburg. His actions in helping to repulse the Confederate assault won him new admirers throughout the Union, especially in his hometown of Norristown, Pa. His neighbors and friends paid tribute to Hancock with a unique silver service.

Civil War Images; Fallen Soldiers by Robert Lee Blankenship  (p. 40)
A poem explores the connection between Civil War soldier photographs and the individuals who collect them.

Faces in Cases: Representative images from the Bryan Watson collection (pp. 42-51)
Wyoming’s Bryan Watson’s passion for collecting might be summed up in a fortune cookie he once received: “Where your treasure is there will your heart will be also.” A profile of Watson is accompanied by a selection of 25 of his finest portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers.

Old Pap: The neglected legacy of one of the Union’s most loyal brigadiers by Ben Myers (pp. 52-58)
Alpheus Starkey Williams commanded troops at many of the Civil War’s biggest battles and campaigns, including Gettysburg, Atlanta and the March to the Sea. His military record was exemplary. And yet history has forgotten him. The author examines Williams the soldier and the man, and reveals how his humble ways likely contributed to his lack of notoriety.

Fighting for Freedom: Portraits of soldiers and other Civil War participants (pp. 59-65)
No single group experienced such a dramatic change in fortunes during the Civil War than men of color. From an enslaved race to freedmen to post-war struggles, they served as soldiers, servants and laborers. A sampling of 13 portraits, some never before published, are featured here.

Memento of a Senseless Death: The portrait of a surgeon recalls a wartime murder by Daniel R. Glenn (pp. 66-68)
John Gore Johnson, a Massachusetts physician who served as a contract surgeon in Union-occupied North Carolina, treated an African American man shot and mortally wounded by a federal soldier. A court-martial convened in New Bern to try the soldier, who was charged with murder. Johnson testified, and posed for his portrait soon afterwards. A note tucked inside the image case suggests that the trial was one that the doctor wanted to remember.

A Navy Lieutenant Faces Divided Loyalties in His Final Discharge of Duty by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 70-73)
Virginia-born career navy officer Otway Henry Berryman found himself in command of a vessel in Florida as the Union broke apart and was consumed by war. In the face of divided loyalties, Berryman managed to navigate uncharted political and military waters as tensions mounted in Pensacola Bay. He might have gone on to become one of the Union’s best-known naval commanders—then fate intervened.

The Honored Few (pp. 74-75)
Charles Henry Tompkins, a West Point dropout whose father was a career army officer, was perhaps an unlikely choice for a war hero. On June 1, 1861, on a scouting mission just outside Washington, D.C., he encountered Confederate troops. What followed was an encounter that became known as the Battle of Fairfax Court House. His aggressive actions were recognized with the Medal of Honor in 1893.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 76-77)
“Confederate Portraits” features three images of unidentified soldiers, including a rare wartime daguerreotype.

Sutler’s Row (p. 79)

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Michael J. McAfee Collection is a portrait of a trio of young ladies who have surrounded their captive, a Union first sergeant.

Our Digital Preservation Effort

The toughest part of my job may surprise you—fielding specific search requests. Want to know how many times the 54th Massachusetts Infantry is mentioned in all of our issues? How about the 6th Virginia Cavalry? I couldn’t tell you without a huge investment in time.

The root of the problem is that there has been no easy way to search our 200-plus issues archive. My predecessors, to their credit, anticipated the need, and created two indexes: one for stories and another for regiments. But they were not maintained and are now out of date. A substantial effort is required to bring them to current times. And they’re not digital native.

I’ve been concerned about how to make 40 years of content available since becoming editor.

Our first effort to address the problem was to create finding aids. We began cataloging in November 2015 and completed the work last December. These aids can now be browsed by volume by volume and issue number in the Back Issues section of our site. Though these finding aids do not satisfy larger search needs, they do document the contents of each issue.

What we really needed was a fully searchable digitized collection. I investigated a few options early on in my tenure, but could not find a way forward.

Everything changed on Sept. 26, 2016, with an email from Robert Sedgwick, a Senior Editor at the non-profit digital library Journal Storage, or JSTOR. “I write today to invite your publication, Military Images, to join our archive,” Sedgwick stated. He added, “Participation in the archive is by invitation, and Military Images was selected after a careful review of its publication history, as well as recommendations from academic librarians and scholars.”

I accepted the offer and soon the archive of printed magazines was in the hands of JSTOR staff. They scanned and converted each page to optical character recognition, then made everything searchable on JSTOR.org. The work finished last month.

The JSTOR team has my eternal gratitude for preserving Military Images for all time.

Thanks to their efforts, Military Images can be searched by anyone. Modest fees apply to download stories and issues. So go forth and explore! Visit jstor.org/journal/militaryimages to begin searching. Before you do, I recommend our guide for how to get the most out of your JSTOR visit. It is available on militaryimages.com.

Oh, and the answers to those questions? The 54th Massachusetts appears 22 times, and the 6th Virginia Cavalry makes 14 appearances.

How to Make the Most of Your Military Images Search on JSTOR

JSTOR offers a powerful search tool to explore Military Images, and has a unique interface to guide you to the best possible results. There are two main ways to access our content:

  • Advanced Search: Using key terms and boolean operators to deliver relevant results, this is a great tool for in-depth fielded searches.
  • Browse: Organized by subject, title and publisher. If you are looking for a specific issue , this is a convenient way to access it.

Military Images recommends the Advanced Search to take full advantage of our full run of issues. Why? Because the JSTOR interface is designed to perform unique searches of value to collectors, historians, genealogists and other enthusiasts. Here’s how it works:

  1. Go to jstor.org and select “Advanced Search.” You don’t need to be logged in to search.
  2. On the search screen, enter key terms in the field boxes and the pull-down menus to connect the terms (and, or, not, near 5, near 10, near 25). You can add additional search boxes as needed. Scroll down to the “Journal of Book Title” field and type in Military Images. Fill in other boxes as desired.
  3. Select “Search.” A new page will load with your results.
  4. Select a search result to purchase a PDF of the story. To complete the purchase you will need to register for an account.

For further information, visit JSTOR’s collection of video tutorials.