Military Images

Finding Aid: Autumn 2020

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 4
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures Chaplain Nicholas A. Davis of the 4th Texas Infantry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor puts photographs and stories of Civil War soldiers and sailors into context in “Guidebook to Our American Journey.”

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes praise for Adam Ochs Fleischer’s Behind the Backdrop column, and thoughts on a lantern slide Barbara Fritchie that appeared in our summer issue.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A study of 250 Civil War soldier and sailor cartes de visite taken by photographers across the country reveals six major styles of mount borders.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
MI Senior Editor Ron Field’s new book, Uniforms of the Union Volunteers of 1861: The Mid-Atlantic States, examines distinctive uniforms worn by Pennsylvanians, New Yorkers, Jerseymen, Delawareans, Marylanders and soldiers from the District of Columbia.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “The Art of Photo Sleuthing,” Luther examines how paintings, long the dominant portraiture form prior to the advent of photography, are a neglected resource that should be considered when researching the identity of a Civil War soldier.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A quarter-plate tintype pictures an unusual view of a soldier wearing a Pattern 1839 “wheel cap” with a glazed linen rain cover.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Sergeant Lester Archer of the 96th New York Infantry carried the colors of his regiment during the assault of Union forces against Fort Harrison. He planted the flag on the enemy parapet and for his action received the Medal of Honor.

Most Hallowed Ground by Carolyn B. Ivanoff, with images from the Captain Wilson French Collection (p. 16)
The zenith of Maj. William H. Hugo’s military career occurred at Gettysburg’s Peach Orchard. The low point came in the West in 1881 when he was court martialed. The story of how his highs and lows is told here.

The Citizenry by Elizabeth Topping(p. 18)
In “The Circuit Rider,” we meet Rev. Allen H. Tilton, a traveling Methodist clergyman who spread the word of God throughout central Ohio. In 1864, he traveled 7,000 miles to 100 locations across the Buckeye State.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In “Bogus Modern Ink Identifications,” Frohne details how fakers add signatures and related inscriptions to dramatically increase the value of cartes de visite, and how to tell the difference between a faked signature and the real thing.

Chaplain Chronicles (pp. 23-46)
Faces of 40 Union and Confederate clergymen and their stories of spirituality, slavery, courage, caregiving, patriotism, suffering and death during the Civil War.

Agent of the Cotton War by Ron Maness, with images and artifacts from the author’s collection (pp. 48-57)
Most know James T. Ames as a New England sword maker. He was also a global manufacturer of munitions and cotton machinery with Confederate connections. This investigation into is connections involves pikes supplied to abolitionist John Brown, dealings with Great Britain and sales of weapons and machinery to the Southern states before, during and after secession.

Charley’s Album: A pocket-sized treasure recalls a Connecticut officer’s war experience by Dione Longley and Buck Zaidel (pp. 58-61)
Civil War soldiers filled uncounted albums with photographs of their pards to remember friendships forged against a backdrop of war. Time has taken many of them from us. Some survived intact, including this worn leather album small enough to slide into a shirt pocket. It holds just ten photographs—one Charley Deming’s world.

Perfect Tiger: Connecticut’s Col. Elisha Strong Kellogg by Dione Longley and Buck Zaidel, with images and artifacts from the Buck Zaidel Collection (pp. 62-66)
The colonel who led the 2nd Connecticut Heavy Artillery into the 1864 Battle of Cold Harbor was a study in contrasts. “His nature was versatile, and full of contradictions; sometimes exhibiting the tenderest sensibilities and sometimes none at all,” noted one soldier. Beloved by his men, Kellogg’s destiny rose and fell with his regiment.

Caught in the Crossfire: A surgeon in Sherman’s Army between quarreling generals by Frank Jastrzembski (pp. 67-69)
Medical Director Surg. Norman Gay incurred the wrath of Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sweeny while trying to protect a corps ambulance, and in doing so wandered into an infamous feed between Sweeny and another general, Grenville M. Dodge. Here’s the story.

Grant After Vicksburg: Solving the mystery of who took the general’s photograph by James Bultema (pp. 70-71)
The summer of 1863 was a career-defining period for Ulysses S. Grant as his army captured Vicksburg and secured the Mississippi River for the Union. Five portraits taken of the victorious general weeks later picture Grant as he looked during the historic moment. The author shares his evidence for who he believes is the photographer who made the images.

Material Culture by Ron Field (pp. 72-76)
In “Uniforms Inspired by the “Old Seventy-Sixers,” Field examines the distinctive militia uniforms inspired by Gen. George Washington’s Continentals.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 77)
Included are portraits of a soldier with a unique belt, an unidentified chaplain and a sergeant who likely served in an infantry regiment that belonged to the U.S. Colored Troops.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 78-79)
In “Beaufort’s Mystery Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas connected to portraits taken in Beaufort, S.C., in 1862.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Brian Boeve Collection pictures a Confederate brandishing a revolver produced by the Starr Arms Company.

Finding Aid: Summer 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 3
(80 pages)

Purchase ($8.00 plus postage)
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Inside

Cover image
A quarter-plate ambrotype from the Dan Schwab Collection pictures Newton J. Ragon of the 13th Mississippi Infantry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor dedicates his column to “Publishing in a Pandemic.”

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments about the loss of historical context when mats and cases are replaced on hard-plate images, details about Col. John R. Hart’s 6th Georgia Cavalry, and inherent problems with colorization.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
Visualizing Edward and Henry T. Anthony’s November 1862 Catalogue of Card Photographs as a pie chart.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
MI Senior Editor Ron Field reviews American Zouaves, 1859-1959: An Illustrated History (McFarland & Company, Inc.) by Daniel J. Miller.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “How to Trust the Worthiness of an Identification,” Luther reveals the results of a survey of collectors to gauge various forms of image identification. He grouped the data into three categories, high-, medium-, and low-touch sources. Period inscriptions on the photograph with validation scored highest, and images identified only with military records and other textual documents scored lowest.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A quarter-plate daguerreotype of John Reynolds by renowned photographer Jeremiah Gurney may have been a portrait promised to his sister, Ellie, in an 1858 letter.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Christopher C. Bruton of the 22nd New York Cavalry told the story of his capture of the headquarters flag of Confederate Lt. Gen. Jubal Early to a group gathered at the War Department in Washington, D.C., in March 1865. Among those present were Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton and Libby Custer, the wife of the general in whose division Bruton served. A son of Ireland, Bruton received the nation’s highest military honor for his act.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 16)
William Henry Gobrecht, surgeon of the 49th Pennsylvania Infantry, enjoyed high name recognition among health care workers. In 1858, his American edition of the textbook Wilson’s Anatomy become the standard text for doctors. His postwar career brought him to Washington, D.C. for a job at the Pension Bureau. Upon his death in 1901, his remains were interred in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 18)
A tintype, believed to be previously unpublished, features Lavinia Ellen “Vinnie” Ream, the sculptor who rose in prominence during the Civil War. Her best known works are of Abraham Lincoln—an 1864 bust for which he sat, and an 1871 statue that stands in the U.S. Capitol rotunda.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “Rembrandt You Are Not, Sir!,” Frohne details how fakers use paint to transform ambrotypes and tintypes of civilians into soldiers and sailors.

Three Days in July: Faces of Union and Confederate Soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg, edited by Charles Joyce (pp. 24-39)
A collection of more than two dozen ambrotypes, cartes de visite, and tintypes of Union and Confederate soldiers at the Battle of Gettysburg, each accompanied by the story of each man’s experience during the fight. Among those included are 1st Lt. Robert C. Knaggs of the 7th Michigan Infantry, Pvt. Clark Stevens of the 2nd New Hampshire Infantry, Pvt. Hiram Gilbert of 76th New York Infantry, Lt. Col. Theobold Alexander Von Mitzel of the 74th Pennsylvania Infantry, Pvt. David “Davy” Barnum of the 5th Alabama Infantry, Capt. James Washington Beck of the 44th Georgia Infantry, Lt. Col. Wharton Jackson “Jack” Green of Tennessee and more. Contributions of images and text included Rick Carlile, Ronald S. Coddington, Guy DiMasi, Thomas Harris, Tom Huntington, Britt C. Isenberg, Ross J. Kelbaugh, Jeff Kowalis, C. Paul Loane, August Marchetti, Paul Russinoff, Dan Schwab, Karl Sundstrom and Daniel Taylor.

America’s “Good Death”: Capt. Charles W. Billings of the 20th Maine Infantry at Little Round Top by Paul Russinoff (pp. 40-45)
Capt. Charles W. Billings of the 20th Maine Infantry suffered a mortal wound at Little Round Top. Russinoff brings together primary sources and artifacts for the first time to tell Billings’ story, which underscores historian Drew Gilpin-Faust’s concept of “The Good Death.”

A Romance Fueled by Photographs: At Gettysburg, an Iron Brigade Bandsman and a former tavern keeper’s daughter find love and likeness by Charles Joyce (pp. 46-49)
The Adams County Courthouse in downtown Gettysburg became a scene of death and dying during the fighting as the recently constructed building became a makeshift hospital. It also provided the backdrop for love between Susie Herr, the daughter of a former tavern keeper, and German immigrant Jacob F. Gundrum, a musician in the band of the famed Iron Brigade. This is their story.

The Likeness and Legacy of The Children: A history, study and survey of an iconic Civil War image by Mark H. Dunkelman and Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 50-53)
The death of Amos Humiston of the 154th New York Infantry at Gettysburg and the ambrotype of his three children clutched in his hands is one of the best-known stories of the Civil War. Historian Dunkelman, who has written extensively about Humiston and the 154th, and MI Contributing Editor Leisenring team up to examine surviving images of “The Children of The Battle-Field.”

Old Abe and the Army of the American Eagle by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 54-57)
Chicago printer Alfred L. Sewell devised a novel fundraiser to support the Union army: Selling carte de visite sized portraits of Old Abe, the famed Eagle mascot of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry. Sewell targeted kids, who purchased tens of thousands of the images under the auspices of the U.S. Sanitary Commission. Children earned commissions in Old Abe’s army, and a small number received Medals of Honor for the number of images purchased.

Before Movies, Americans Viewed the Civil War Through the Magic Lantern by Robert Marcus (pp. 58-61)
During the years following the Civil War, American audiences packed venues across the country to experience the late conflict through glass plates projected on a big screen—the precursor to motion pictures.

The Last Parade: Cameras captured the pomp and circumstance in New York City on July 4, 1860. Nine months later, the Civil War began by Ron Field (pp. 63-66)
Photographer Edward Anthony and his assistants set up stereoscopic cameras at two locations to capture the city’s militia marching along the Independence Day parade route. Field details the regiments pictured in nine surviving stereo cards.

Mariner. Teamster. Refugee. Surgeon’s Steward. The life and naval service of William Tyler Cross by Jack Hurov (pp. 68-70)
William Tyler Cross became an unlikely pawn in game of political brinkmanship between the U.S. and Mexico in 1862. He managed to return safely and went on to serve in one of the Navy’s most underappreciated positions—surgeon’s steward. The role was similar to its counterpart in the army, the hospital steward.

Journey to Lynchburg: William Hawkins of the 15th New York Cavalry in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley by James Crane III (pp. 72-74)
Hawkins suffered a gunshot in the head an instant death during an action in the Diamond Hill neighborhood of Lynchburg, Va., on June 17, 1864. He had been in uniform for less than a year. A farmer, he left behind a widowed wife and three orphaned children—and two photographs in civilian clothes and a military uniform.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 75)
Included are portraits of two revolver-packing Union troopers, a Bluejacket, and a teamster taken in Corinth, Miss.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 78-79)
In “Wartime Letters Document the 2nd Cavalry Division Backdrop,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas with tents, a guard and hills with forts.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A cabinet card from the Robert Elliott Collection pictures a painting of Col. Harry Burgwyn of the 26th North Carolina Infantry, who suffered a mortal wound in a charge against elements of the Iron Brigade on July 1, 1863. The photograph was presented to the officer who succeeded Burgwyn in command, Lt. Col. John R. Lane.

Finding Aid: Spring 2020

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVIII, No. 2
(80 pages)

Purchase ($8.00 plus postage)
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Inside

Cover image
A half-plate ambrotype from the David W. Vaughan Collection pictures William Houston House of the 13th Georgia Cavalry.

Table of Contents (p. 1)

Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor introduces two new departments, Behind the Backdrop by Adam Ochs Fleischer and Material Culture, which is guest hosted. The editor also notes a modification in policy regarding colorized images, which will be allowed for educational purposes. Such images reproduced in the magazine will be accompanied by the un-colorized image.

Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes comments on Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds,and a note regarding a misidentified epaulette.

Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A tree map diagram visualizes enlistments in the Union and Confederate armies.

Passing in Review (pp. 6-8)
Featured media includes The 16th Michigan Infantry in the Civil War (Michigan State University Press) by Kim Crawford, 100 Significant Civil War Photographs: Atlanta Campaign (Historical Publications LLC), and the movie short Hold My Horse (Look Around You Ventures, LLC) starring Christian Stolte and Patrick Webb.

Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-13)
In “Lost and Found in the Library of Congress,” Luther details his journey that began with a questionable caption on a single glass plate negative and ended with an extensive examination of captions attached to 16 negatives—11 of which he found proved incorrect or unclear.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 14)
A sixth-plate ambrotype discovered in Florence, S.C., pictures a militiaman. He may have been a member of the Darlington Rifles, a local militia company.

The Honored Few (p. 16)
Willie Johnston, an 11-year-old drummer in the 3rd Vermont Infantry, managed to hold on to his instrument during the desperate march from the Malvern Hill battlefield to Harrison’s Landing. On July 4, 1862, after Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan ordered a review to boost morale, only Johnston had a drum to play. Other musicians had either discarded their drums during the march or put them in temporary storage aboard baggage wagons. Word of Willie’s lone performance made its way to Washington, D.C., and resulted in his receipt of the nation’s highest military honor.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 18)
Navy Rear Adm. Richard Worsam Meade was an irascible man, a trait he shared in common with his famous uncle, Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade. Rear Adm. Meade’s temper got the best of him late in his career when he insulted President and Commander-in-Chief Grover Cleveland. The incident ended with Meade’s dismissal from the Navy. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Alison Renner (p. 20)
Four-year-old Major Willie Bagley, “The Wisconsin Infant Drummer,” enjoyed a brief stint in the spotlight as a performer for P.T. Barnum. The legendary Barnum posted with Bagley to mark the association.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry M. Frohne (pp. 22-23)
In “The Weaponization of Technology and Psychology,” Frohne details how today’s forgers  “are far smarter, have far better technology, and are very close to producing perfect fake cartes de visite.” He illustrates the column with two cartes that fooled him.

Georgians in Gray: Images from the David W. Vaughan Collection, with text by August Marchetti (pp. 24-35)
More than 15 years ago, a gallery of David W. Vaughan’s portraits of Georgia Confederates debuted in this magazine. Since then, the collection has been recognized across the country, including the landmark 2013 exhibit Photography and the American Civil War at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Vaughan has continued to add to his collection. This gallery highlights recent acquisitions.

Commemorating Uncle Billy’s 200th Birthday in Portraits, with images from the Jerry Everts Collection (pp. 36-45)
William Tecumseh Sherman is front center in 25 portraits that document his rise from major general in 1863 to General of the Army to his retirement.

Chivalrous Legacy: The story behind Tunis A.M. Craven’s last recorded words at Mobile Bay by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 46-48)
The Battle of Mobile Bay is known for two distinct human moments connected to torpedoes: Read Adm. David Farragut’s utterance paraphrased as “Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead,” and Cmdr. Tunis Augustus Macdonough Craven’s words as his ironclad Tecumseh sank, “After you, sir.” This story puts Craven’s words in context, and is illustrated with four portraits of him.

Antebellum Midshipmen: A survey of Navy portraits with images from the Dr. William Schultz Collection (pp. 50-54)
Fourth in a series of galleries of pre-Civil War daguerreotypes from the Schultz collection, this survey examines nine portraits. They include an early view of a midshipman by pioneer photographer John Plumbe, John “Jack” Wilkes, Jr., the son of career naval officer Charles Wilkes, and John Gardner Mitchell, for whom Mitchell Bay in Alaska is named.

A Merchant Prince Goes to War: Baltimore’s Lt. Noah Dixon Walker, C.S.A. by Ronald S. Coddington with Ross J. Kelbaugh (pp. 56-60)
Noah Dixon Walker received an offer of $200,000 ($6 million in today’s dollars) not to enlist in the Confederate army. The man who made the offer was his father, wealthy Baltimore merchant Noah Walker. His son passed on the offer to become an officer in the 44th Virginia Infantry. This is his story.

Accidental American, Soldier, Artist, Photographer: The notable journey of Civil War veteran William Kurtz by Scott Valentine (pp. 62-65)
After fate dashed his dream to start a new life in China, Germany’s William Kurtz found himself stranded on the shores of the U.S. with little money and prospects. He managed to find a job in a New York City photographer’s studio, and it launched him on a prosperous high-profile career.

Inside “The Empty Sleeve” by James S. Brust (pp. 66-67)
Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard is perhaps best remembered for his post-Civil War roles with the Freedman’s Bureau and the establishment of Howard University in Washington, D.C. Far less known is a speech he gave in Maine soon after the amputation of his arm after it was severely damaged during the 1862 Battle of Fair Oaks, Va. Howard’s words inspired poet David Barker’s “The Empty Sleeve,” which holds a unique place in American popular culture.

Seamless Sharpshooters: How a revolutionary breakthrough in garment design proved undesirable in war by Brian T. White (pp. 68-70)
Seamless overcoats proved the rage in the late 1850s, thanks to innovative efforts to manipulate wool into form-fitting clothing. Among those who took advantage of the latest technology was Col. Hiram Berdan, the engineer, inventor and crack marksman who raised two regiments of sharpshooters for the Union army. His men received seamless overcoats as part of their standard issue uniform.

Behind the Backdrop: Origins, artistry and photographers by Adam Ochs Fleischer (pp. 72-75)
In his inaugural column, “A Daguerreian Pioneer at the Rendezvous of Distribution,” Fleischer examines the distinctive painted canvas depicting a scene that includes Sibley tents and a palm tree. His investigations highlight the man behind the backdrop, John Jones, and the gallery he operated.

Material Culture by Frederick C. Gaede (pp. 76-77)
In this inaugural column, guest author Gaede investigates leather neck stocks from 1851-1865. Though they are long gone from the military, they live on in the Marine moniker “Leatherneck.”

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (p. 79)
Included are three portraits of Union soldiers, including a Zouave who served in the 9th New York Infantry from the Anthony F. Gero Collection.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A sixth-plate tintype from the Paul Russinoff Collection pictures a man reading a newspaper. He is dressed in shirtsleeves and what appears to be a military vest.

Finding Aid: Autumn 2019

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVII, No. 4
(80 pages)

No print issues in stock
Download PDF from JSTOR ($16.00)
Subscribe to MI ($24.95)
Explore the MI Archives: Browse | Advanced search | Tutorial

Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection pictures an officer wearing an 1851 regulation dress uniform and a woman who wears a cross around her neck.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
The editor recalls to the late Michael J. McAfee, a longtime columnist for MI and a giant in the community of collectors.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes tributes to Mike McAfee, the backstory about the discovery of the daguerreotype of general and future president Franklin Pierce published in the last issue.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
A look at the number of active duty army and navy personnel in the U.S. military between 1848 and 1861.

Passing in Review (p. 6)
Behind the Rifle: Women Soldiers in Civil War Mississippi by Shelby Harriel (University Press of Mississippi), and The Maryland Brigade by Daniel Carroll Toomey (Toomey Press).
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-10)
In “Evidence-Based Tips for Using Civil War Photo Sleuth,” Kurt discusses how two forms of automation, face recognition and filtering military records, eliminate potential portraits and narrow the possible choices to identify an individual.

Antebellum Warriors (p. 12)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Dr. William Schultz Collection is a portrait of an infantryman dressed in the blue fatigue jacket from 1836 and a Model 1840 officer’s sword.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Samuel Cole Wright suffered numerous wounds and injuries during his four years in uniform with the 3rd and 29th Massachusetts infantries. During his service in the last-named regiment, he was wounded in both legs during the fighting at the Battle of Antietam’s Bloody Lane. He received the Medal of Honor for his courage.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 14)
John William Fenton, a captain in the 132nd New York Infantry, was brought up on charges after he assaulted the owner of a saloon in New Bern, N.C., in late 1864. His actions resulted in a dishonorable discharge, which was overturned after his comrades petitioned to allow him to resign with honor. His post-war life took him to Washington, D.C., where he died in 1891 and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

The Citizenry by Ron Field(p. 18)
The Haley brothers opened a store in New Market, N.H., on the eve of the Civil War. The building, pictured in this wartime stereo card, produced fatigue blouses and coats for several state regiments. A crowd is gathered in front of the store.

Fakes, Forgeries and Frauds by Perry Frohne (pp. 20-21)
In his inaugural column, “Develop Your Sixth Sense for Fakes,” Perry tells the origin story of fakes, and discusses resources to help you combat fake images with knowledge.

Between Guadalupe Hidalgo and Secession: A survey of military portraits of West Pointers and Regulars on the western frontier by Dr. William Schultz (pp. 22-30)
This is the second in a multi-part series of pre-Civil War military portrait photography from the collection of Dr. William Schultz. Included are several men who went on to serve in the Union and Confederate armies—Confederate surgeon Robert Little Brodie, Capt. Martin Mullins of the 5th U.S. Infantry, and Union generals George Crook, Henry Prince and Henry Walton Wessels.

The Great American Civil War Pipe Gallery (pp. 31-38)
Tobacco was hailed as the soldier’s constant companion—when he could find it—by some and also as a wicked habit by others. In this gallery, a companion to last autumn’s cigar feature, we celebrate those who enjoyed the soldier’s and sailor’s solace in front of the camera.

Cultural Ambassador: On diplomacy’s front lines in Morocco and elsewhere with Albert L. Gihon, U.S. Navy by Ronald S. Coddington (pp. 40-45)
Gihon, a career navy officer, hailed from a  family of adventurers that included his father, who participated in the California Gold Rush, and his brother, a prominent Philadelphia photographer. Gihon’s adventures took him to the coast of North Africa, where he and his shipmates on the St. Louis played a role in U.S.-Moroccan diplomacy.

Captured by the Lens in Bermuda: The Confederate Photography of S.W. Gault by Fred D. Taylor (pp. 46-50)
Tennessee’s Samuel Walter “S.W.” Gault traveled the U.S. as a photographer before the war, and when hostilities erupted between the North and South, he set out for Bermuda to avoid the conflict. But he could not escape the far reaches of the Civil War—and a rare opportunity to capture Confederates with his camera.

Corporal Austin Captures a Flag by Ron Field (p. 51)
Albert Austin and his comrades in the 8th Connecticut Infantry had their baptism under fire at the Battle of New Bern, N.C., on March 14, 1862. On that day, Austin picked up a war trophy. Here, we bring together the relic and his portrait—and tell Austin’s story.

Nurse Pomroy: Comforter-in-Chief to the Lincoln Family by Chris Foard, MSN, RN (pp. 52-57)
Rebecca Pomroy came to Washington to take care of wounded and sick soldiers. Much to her surprise, she was called to care for the Lincoln family—a role that she enjoyed, but also one that challenged her because it kept her from the soldier boys she pledged to serve.

Filler Cartes de Visite: A fresh look at art, humor and satire by James S. Brust (pp. 58-65)
In recent times, cartes de visite of art, celebrities, scenes and other non-personal portraits tucked into albums have been labeled as “fillers.” The term implies that they were less desirable afterthoughts. The opposite is true. We tell you why.

Hard Drinking Colonels: A tableau of two commanders of the 69th Ohio Infantry by David B. Holcomb (pp. 66-67)
A tintype of four soldiers provides an entry point into the early and troubled history of the 69th Ohio Infantry, which involved two colonels with alcohol problems.

The Little Sack of Flour That Won the West by Jeremy Rowe (pp. 68-70)
What began as a bet on a mayoral race in a rough and tumble Nevada mining town ended with mock auctions across the West for a sack of flour that raised huge amounts of money to support Union troops. The man who led the philanthropic effort, merchant Reuel Colt “R.C.” Gridley, was an unlikely fundraiser.

The Entertainer: Long before Bob Hope entertained the troops, there was Barney Williams by Kraig McNutt (pp. 71-74)
The popular Irish singer and stage star, along with his wife, Maria, made a fortune and achieved celebrity status before the Civil War. After hostilities began, Barney brought much needed cheer to Union soldiers. President Abraham Lincoln was a fan—and John Wilkes Booth was not.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
Included is a portrait of the brothers Henry and William King, enlisted men in the 52nd Pennsylvania Infantry, a Union infantryman with an Austrian Lorenz rifle musket, and two casually-dressed federals pictured just days before their Suffolk, Va., garrison came under siege by Confederates.

The Last Shot (p. 80)Two cartes de visite from the Karl Sundstrom Collection picture Union officers, each with a pencil inscription that accuses one of gambling and the other of cowardice.

Gettysburg Gathering: Celebrating the Collecting Community

Collectors, dealers and other members of the Civil War collecting community third met for the Gettysburg Gathering on Friday night, June 28, 2019. The group met at historic Grand Army of the Republic Hall in downtown Gettysburg, Pa. The evening began with a buffet barbecue dinner catered by Biggerstaff’s and continued with welcome remarks by co-hosts Ron Coddington of Military Images magazine and Doug York of Civil War Faces and Civil War Faces Market Place. The two announced the formation of a new organization, the Civil War Photo Collectors Society. The main attraction of the night—four speakers who presented on a variety of Civil War photo-related topics.

Gary McQuarrie, Doug York, Rick Brown, Ron Coddington, Chuck Joyce and Dr. Kurt Luther.

The program:

Chuck Joyce.

The Sacrifice of Seven: Images and Stories of Union Casualties at Gettysburg
By Chuck Joyce, Senior Editor, Military Images
About a dozen years ago, I began to focus my collection on images and artifacts of men and boys who fell at Gettysburg—drawn, as countless others before me, to the special nature of this hallowed ground. In this talk, I share the stories of seven federal soldiers whose lives were lost or forever altered in the fighting that took place here, paying particular attention to  role that pension records and online sources, the network of fellow collectors, and just plain luck has played in helping to allow me to learn and tell the tale of their sacrifice.

Dr. Kurt Luther.

Civil War Photo Sleuthing: Past, Present, and Future
By Dr. Kurt Luther, Civil War Photo Sleuth
People have struggled to identify unknown soldiers and sailors in Civil War photos since even before the war ended. In this talk, I trace the 150-year history of photo sleuthing, showing how the passage of time has magnified some challenges, but also unlocked exciting new possibilities. I show how technologies like social media, face recognition, and digital archives allow us to solve photo mysteries that have eluded families and researchers for a century and a half.

Gary McQuarrie.

George Holmes Bixby, MD: Photographer on the Western Rivers
By Gary McQuarrie, Managing Editor, Civil War Navy—The Magazine 
Documentary evidence is reviewed that Dr. Bixby, the Chief Medical Officer on the USS Red Rover hospital ship, photographed many iconic gunboats and vessels of the Mississippi Squadron during his service in the theater and deserves to be recognized for his photographs and as one of a small group of physician photographers during the war.

Rick Brown.

Through a Collector’s Eye
By Rick Brown, Senior Editor, Military Images
I review a sampling of photographs from my collection with an eye to artistry, appreciation, and history. I also share stories about the community of collectors, and our role in preserving the wonderful images out there we’ve discovered and shared.

The Benefits of Advertising in MI, Explained in Our New Media Kit

Military Images has spent the last five years rethinking advertising. We’ve evolved from offering a single set of print magazine options to a new approach that embraces print, digital and social media.

The plan is simple: We offer advertisers access to our quarterly magazine in print and online, our web site, our Facebook page and Military Images Live, our streaming video program. You can pick and choose from four different packages, all reasonably priced. No matter which plan you choose, your company name will marketed to our engaged audience with an active interest in American Civil War photography and history. It includes an vibrant community of collectors and dealers in historic military photography and other artifacts, researchers and genealogists, re-enactors and living historians, authors and historians, museums, libraries, historical societies, and other public and private institutions. Included in this last group are more than 40 Civil War-related national historical sites and military parks and museums.

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Finding Aid: Autumn 2018

The complete issue

Vol. XXXVI, No. 4
(80 pages)

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Inside

Cover image
A sixth-plate tintype from the Kevin Canberg Collection pictures a Union veteran seated on a tree trunk with canteen in hand.
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Table of Contents (p. 1)
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Editor’s Desk (p. 2)
In “Introducing The Citizenry,” the editor provides background on a new department to recognize the generation who supported soldiers and sailors in blue and gray through original portrait photographs and stories.
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Mail Call (pp. 3-4)
Feedback includes an early birthday gift for the state of Maine, an emotional reunion with a family photo, a newly discovered photo of George L. Fisher, the durable man of Hagerstown, Md., and a commentary on probably props.
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Military Anthropologist (p. 4)
An analysis of more than 25,000 photograph citations on Newspapers.com reveals that the Civil War is a time of transition for photographic formats. Ambrotypes dominated in 1861. Four years later, the carte de visite ruled.
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Passing in Review (p. 6)
The Soldiers of Fort Mackinac: An Illustrated History (Michigan State University Press) by Phil Porter documents the many soldiers who passed through the fort, including future Union and Confederate generals, during its active operations from 1780 to 1895.
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Photo Sleuth by Kurt Luther (pp. 8-9)
In “A New Era in Photo Sleuthing Begins,” Kurt reviews the history of Civil War Photo Sleuth from its soft launch in Gettysburg in 2017 to the official launch inside the Innovation Hub at the National Archives on Aug. 1, 2018. Kurt also discusses early feedback and next steps to fulfill its mission “to recover the names and stories behind every surviving Civil War-era portrait.”

Antebellum Warriors (p. 10)
A sixth-plate daguerreotype from the Paul Reeder Collection is a portrait believed to be a member of the Massachusetts Volunteer Militia.

Most Hallowed Ground (p. 12)
Capt. Adam Kramer and 86 of his troopers in the 15th Pennsylvania Cavalry launched a successful raid in North Carolina during the closing days of the war. Born and educated in Germany, he started his military service before the war with the 2nd U.S. Dragoons and continued on after the war with the 6th U.S. Cavalry.

The Honored Few (p. 14)
Robert Frank Shipley, a sergeant in the 140th New York Infantry, captured the flag of the 9th Virginia Infantry during the Battle of Five Forks—one of 17 soldiers to receive the honor for this engagement. How he came to capture the flag and what happened to the banner after the war are reported here.

The Citizenry (p. 16)
The inaugural department dedicated to images of the Civil War generation is a portrait of Kentuckians Elizabeth Taylor Nelson and John Rowzee Green.

Antietam Album with an introduction by John Banks (pp. 18-23)
A survey of 10 portraits of Union and Confederate soldiers who became casualties in the bloodiest single-day battle of the Civil War. Two Confederate and eight Union soldiers are profiled.

Blue & Gray Badges of Courage: Representative images from the Kevin Canberg Collection (pp. 24-34)
Kevin Canberg’s journey as a collector began with an unusual Father’s Day gift for his dad—a vintage fireman’s badge from Brooklyn, N.Y. Since then, Canberg has amassed an impressive collection of ambrotypes and tintypes of Union and Confederate soldiers.

The Linns of Lookout: The enterprising brothers behind a legendary photograph gallery by Dr. Anthony Hodges, with images from the author’s collection (pp. 36-43)
In this first installment of a three-part series, we meet two brothers who documented the scene of one of the great moments in Civil War history—the Nov. 24, 1863, Battle of Lookout Mountain during the Chattanooga Campaign. Images include various views of the area around Lookout Mountain, the gallery and several of the best known individual and group portraits.

Civil War Daguerreotypes: Last of photography’s celebrated first format by Ronald S. Coddington with daguerreotypes from the Mike Medhurst Collection (pp. 44-46)
By the start of the war, the daguerreotype’s reign was at an end as cheaper formats chipped away at its once-dominant market position. Two surviving examples of Civil War soldiers remind us of the end of one era and the beginning of another.

Taxing the Sun: The revolution to repeal and replace the stamp act on photos by Richard Leisenring, Jr. (pp. 47-50)
The federal government needed to pay for an expensive war and looked to tax goods and services to pay for it. Photographs were among the items singled out. We explore the events that led to the tax, and how Mathew Brady and other leading photographers killed it.

Overworked, Undermanned and Indispensable: Hospital stewards in the Civil War by William T. Campbell, Ed.D, RN (pp. 52-56)
Hospital stewards were pharmacists and so much more on staffs of army hospitals. The author examine their role, responsibilities, selection process and uniforms.

Rescuing Joe Parsons: A researcher’s unexpected journey to connect a face to a mythic tale by Alison Renner (pp. 57-60)
Newspapers across the Union carried the story of two soldiers who lay wounded on the battlefield of Antietam, a blinded Yankee and a rebel unable to walk, who joined forces to make a daring escape. The Union soldier, Pvt. Joseph Parsons of the 2nd Maryland Infantry, lived the rest of his days in darkness and his story faded from American history—until the author and her husband found his portrait in a local antique shop.

Fateful Final Lesson: A schoolteacher-soldier’s journey to Andersonville by Earvin Lee Joyner, Jr. (pp. 62-65)
John William Partridge, a New England educator, started his Civil War military service with the 25th Massachusetts Infantry and he later joined the Signal Corps. Captured during a Confederate raid in New Bern, N.C., his journey ended at Andersonville Prison.

The Defier and other Union archetypes by a master lensman by Jim Frasca (pp. 66-67)
A uniquely, thoughtfully posed selection of 7 Civil War cartes de visite by Frank Rowell of Providence, R.I., a refreshingly innovative photographer whose contributions to the art have been largely forgotten.

The Great American Civil War Cigar Gallery (pp. 69-76)
Tobacco was hailed as the soldier’s constant companion—when he could find it—by some and also as a wicked habit by others. In this gallery, we celebrate those who enjoyed a good smoke in front of the camera.

Stragglers: Distinctive Images from MI contributors (pp. 78-79)
“Sergeants in Blue” features eight images of Union men who wore the three-striped chevrons on their sleeves.

The Last Shot (p. 80)
A carte de visite from the Mike Medhurst Collection is a portrait of Granville Moody, the “Famous Fighting Methodist Preacher” who served as colonel of the 74th Ohio Infantry and ended the war as a brevet brigadier general. Moody inscribed the back of the image with a record of marriage vows he administered to John W. Widney and Mary A. Fitzwater Brown of Orange, Ohio.

The Official Launch of Civil War Photo Sleuth

Kurt Luther, pictured here, in the moment he launched our Civil War Photo Sleuth software on August 1 in the Innovation Lab at the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

Kurt (head of CWPS), Ron Coddington (editor of Military Images magazine), and the rest of the team introduced guests throughout the day to the website to learn how to identify unknown Civil War photos, find photos of Civil War ancestors, and add identified photos to our reference database.

Attendees included Garry Adelman of the Civil War Trust and the Center for Civil War Photography, Melissa Winn of Civil War Times, Karen Chittenden from the Library of Congress and Tom Liljenquist, whose collection is part of the Library of Congress.

Images and live video of the event were carried on Facebook.

The response was overwhelmingly positive. CWPS is a historic moment for anyone interested in Civil War soldier and sailor photography.

Countdown to the Launch of Civil War Photo Sleuth

Thrilled to announce the public launch of our Civil War Photo Sleuth software in less than two weeks! This software uses face recognition and crowdsourcing to provide powerful new tools for photo research.

To celebrate, we are hosting a launch party Wednesday, Aug. 1, at the U.S. National Archives Building in Washington, D.C. Kurt Luther (head of CWPS), Ron Coddington (editor of Military Images), and the rest of the team will be there. We can help you use the website, identify unknown Civil War photos, find photos of Civil War ancestors, and add identified photos to our reference database.

Both the website and party are completely free and open to all. If you are thinking of coming, please RSVP here (required for security reasons): https://goo.gl/forms/D59pFqZgWn35YF8z2 Hope that many of you can join us!

Make your plans now!

Military Images Live!

On Monday, July 9, the debut episode of MI Live made its debut on Facebook. For all of you who joined us, thank you! If you missed it, now worries. Join us Monday nights at 9 pm ET for a live broadcast from Military Images HQ. We’ll offer up tips and advice for novice and advanced collectors. Have a question you want answered? How about an informed opinion about a unique image? Visit us on Facebook and let us know.